Enzyme-mediated protein haptenation of dapsone and sulfamethoxazole in human keratinocytes: II. Expression and role of flavin-containing monooxygenases and peroxidases
ABSTRACT Arylamine compounds, such as sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and dapsone (DDS), are metabolized in epidermal keratinocytes to arylhydroxylamine metabolites that auto-oxidize to arylnitroso derivatives, which in turn bind to cellular proteins and can act as antigens/immunogens. Previous studies have demonstrated that neither cytochromes P450 nor cyclooxygenases mediate this bioactivation in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). In this investigation, we demonstrated that methimazole (MMZ), a prototypical substrate of the flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), attenuated the protein haptenation observed in NHEKs exposed to SMX or DDS. In addition, recombinant FMO1 and FMO3 were able to bioactivate both SMX and DDS, resulting in covalent adduct formation. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of FMO3 in NHEKs, whereas FMO1 was not detectable. In addition to MMZ, 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (ABH) also attenuated SMX- and DDS-dependent protein haptenation in NHEKs. ABH did not alter the bioactivation of these drugs by recombinant FMO3, suggesting its inhibitory effect in NHEKs was due to its known ability to inhibit peroxidases. Studies confirmed the presence of peroxidase activity in NHEKs; however, immunoblot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that myeloperoxidase, lactoperoxidase, and thyroid peroxidase were absent. Thus, our results suggest an important role for FMO3 and yet-to-be identified peroxidases in the bioactivation of sulfonamides in NHEKs.
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ABSTRACT: The exposure of the skin to medical drugs, skin care products, cosmetics, and other chemicals renders information on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) in the skin highly interesting. Since the use of freshly excised human skin for experimental investigations meets with ethical and practical limitations, information on XME in models comes in the focus including non-human mammalian species and in vitro skin models. This review attempts to summarize the information available in the open scientific literature on XME in the skin of human, rat, mouse, guinea pig, and pig as well as human primary skin cells, human cell lines, and reconstructed human skin models. The most salient outcome is that much more research on cutaneous XME is needed for solid metabolism-dependent efficacy and safety predictions, and the cutaneous metabolism comparisons have to be viewed with caution. Keeping this fully in mind at least with respect to some cutaneous XME, some models may tentatively be considered to approximate reasonable closeness to human skin. For dermal absorption and for skin irritation among many contributing XME, esterase activity is of special importance, which in pig skin, some human cell lines, and reconstructed skin models appears reasonably close to human skin. With respect to genotoxicity and sensitization, activating XME are not yet judgeable, but reactive metabolite-reducing XME in primary human keratinocytes and several reconstructed human skin models appear reasonably close to human skin. For a more detailed delineation and discussion of the severe limitations see the "Overview and Conclusions" section in the end of this review.Archive für Toxikologie 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00204-014-1382-8 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Drug hypersensitivity remains a major concern as it causes high morbidity and mortality. Understanding the mechanistic basis of drug hypersensitivity is complicated by the multiple risk factors implicated. This study utilized sulfamethoxazole (SMX) as a model drug to (1) relate SMX metabolism in antigen presenting cells (APC) to the activation of T-cells and (2) characterize covalent adducts of SMX and myeloperoxidase, which might represent antigenic determinants for T-cells. The SMX metabolite nitroso SMX (SMX-NO) was found to bind irreversibly to APC. Time- and concentration-dependent drug-protein adducts were also detected when APC were cultured with SMX. Metabolic activation of SMX was significantly reduced by the oxygenase/peroxidase inhibitor methimazole. Similarly, SMX-NO-specific T-cells were activated by APC pulsed with SMX and the response was inhibited by pre-treatment with methimazole or glutaraldehyde, which blocks antigen processing. Western blotting, RT-PCR and mass spectrometry analyses suggested the presence of low concentrations of myeloperoxidase in APC. RT-PCR revealed mRNA expression for flavin containing monooxygenases (FMO1-5), thyroid peroxidase and lactoperoxidase but the corresponding proteins were not detected. Mass spectrometric characterization of SMX-NO-modified myeloperoxidase revealed the formation of N-hydroxysulfinamide adducts on Cys309 and Cys398. These data show that SMX's metabolism in APC generates antigenic determinants for T-cells. Peptides derived from SMX-NO modified myeloperoxidase may represent one form of functional antigen.Chemical Research in Toxicology 12/2014; DOI:10.1021/tx500458k · 4.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: FMO enzymes (FMOs) play a key role in the processes of detoxification and/or bio-activation of specific pharmaceuticals and xenobiotics bearing nucleophilic centers. The N-oxide and S-oxide metabolites produced by FMOs are often active metabolites. The FMOs are more active than cytochromes in the brain, and work in tandem with CYP3A4 in the liver. FMOs might reduce the risk of phospholipidosis of CAD-like drugs, although some FMOs metabolites seem to be neurotoxic and hepatotoxic. However in silico methods for FMO metabolism prediction are not yet available. This paper reports, for the first time, a substrate-specificity and catalytic-activity model for FMO3, the most relevant isoform of the FMOs in humans. The application of this model to a series of compounds with unknown FMO metabolism is also reported. The model has also been very useful to design compounds with optimal clearance and in finding erroneous literature data, particularly cases in which substances have been reported to be FMO3 substrates when, in reality, the experimentally validated in silico model correctly predicts that they are not.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 07/2014; 57(14). DOI:10.1021/jm5007098 · 5.48 Impact Factor