Enzyme-mediated protein haptenation of dapsone and sulfamethoxazole in human keratinocytes: II. Expression and role of flavin-containing monooxygenases and peroxidases

Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 3.86). 11/2006; 319(1):497-505. DOI: 10.1124/jpet.106.105874
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Arylamine compounds, such as sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and dapsone (DDS), are metabolized in epidermal keratinocytes to arylhydroxylamine metabolites that auto-oxidize to arylnitroso derivatives, which in turn bind to cellular proteins and can act as antigens/immunogens. Previous studies have demonstrated that neither cytochromes P450 nor cyclooxygenases mediate this bioactivation in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). In this investigation, we demonstrated that methimazole (MMZ), a prototypical substrate of the flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), attenuated the protein haptenation observed in NHEKs exposed to SMX or DDS. In addition, recombinant FMO1 and FMO3 were able to bioactivate both SMX and DDS, resulting in covalent adduct formation. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of FMO3 in NHEKs, whereas FMO1 was not detectable. In addition to MMZ, 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (ABH) also attenuated SMX- and DDS-dependent protein haptenation in NHEKs. ABH did not alter the bioactivation of these drugs by recombinant FMO3, suggesting its inhibitory effect in NHEKs was due to its known ability to inhibit peroxidases. Studies confirmed the presence of peroxidase activity in NHEKs; however, immunoblot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that myeloperoxidase, lactoperoxidase, and thyroid peroxidase were absent. Thus, our results suggest an important role for FMO3 and yet-to-be identified peroxidases in the bioactivation of sulfonamides in NHEKs.

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    • "Neither CYPs nor cyclooxygenases mediate this bioactivation of sulfamethoxazole and dapsone in NHECs. Methimazole, a prototypical substrate of FMOs, inhibited the bioactivation of sulfamethoxazole and dapsone in the NHECs (Vyas et al. 2006). Diphenylthiourea, a catalytic enhancer used during neoprene synthesis, was bioactivated by FMO-catalyzed S-oxygenation (Samuelsson et al. 2011). "
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    Archive für Toxikologie 11/2014; 88(12). DOI:10.1007/s00204-014-1382-8 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    • "Contradictory results were obtained for the distribution of the dermal FMO isoform (Hu et al., 2010; Jackh et al., 2011). Vyas et al. (2006b) and Hu et al. (2010) did not identify FMO in the EpiDerm skin model and in HaCaT cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract In general, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) are expressed in lower levels in the extrahepatic tissues than in the liver, making the former less relevant for the clearance of xenobiotics. Local metabolism, however, may lead to tissue-specific adverse responses, e.g. organ toxicities, allergies or cancer. This review summarizes the knowledge on the expression of phase I and phase II XMEs and transporters in extrahepatic tissues at the body's internal-external interfaces. In the lung, CYPs of families 1, 2, 3 and 4 and epoxide hydrolases are important phase I enzymes, while conjugation is less relevant. In skin, phase I-related enzymatic reactions are considered less relevant. Predominant skin XMEs are phase II enzymes, whereby glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) 1, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 1 are important for detoxification. The intestinal epithelium expresses many transporters and phase I XME with high levels of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and phase II metabolism is mainly related to UGT, NAT and Sulfotransferases (SULT). In the kidney, conjugation reactions and transporters play a major role for excretion processes. In the bladder, CYPs are relevant and among the phase II enzymes, NAT1 is involved in the activation of bladder carcinogens. Expression of XMEs is regulated by several mechanisms (nuclear receptors, epigenetic mechanisms, microRNAs). However, the understanding why XMEs are differently expressed in the various tissues is fragmentary. In contrast to the liver - where for most XMEs lower expression is demonstrated in early life - the XME ontogeny in the extrahepatic tissues remains to be investigated.
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    • "FMO3 transcription was restricted to the dermis (Wiegand et al., 2008; Jaeckh et al., 2011). In another study, FMO1 transcription was absent in primary keratinocytes (Vyas et al., 2006b), the keratinocyte-based EpiDerm skin model, and in HaCaT cells (Hu et al., 2010). FMO1 and -3 enzyme activities were assessed in microsomes of abdominal skin biopsies, PFT, EFT, EpiDerm, and KeratinoSens using the model substrate benzydamine. "
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