Chinese hamster ovary cell-derived recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase in infantile-onset Pompe disease.
ABSTRACT To conduct an open-label, multinational, multicenter study examining the safety and efficacy of recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase (rhGAA) in treatment of infantile-onset Pompe disease.
We enrolled 8 infant patients who had Pompe disease with GAA activity <1% of normal, cardiomyopathy, and hypotonia. In the 52-week initial phase, rhGAA was infused intravenously at 10 mg/kg weekly; an extension phase continued survivors' treatment with 10 to 20 mg/kg of rhGAA weekly or 20 mg/kg every 2 weeks for as long as 153 weeks. Safety measurements included adverse events, laboratory tests, and anti-rhGAA antibody titers. Efficacy evaluations included survival, ventilator use, echocardiograms, growth, and motor and cognitive function.
After 52 weeks of treatment, 6 of 8 patients were alive, and 5 patients were free of invasive ventilator support. Clinical improvements included ameliorated cardiomyopathy and improved growth and cognition. Five patients acquired new motor milestones; 3 patients walked independently. Four patients died after the initial study phase; the median age at death or treatment withdrawal for all patients was 21.7 months, significantly later than expected for patients who were not treated. Treatment was safe and well tolerated; no death was drug-related.
rhGAA improved ventilator-free survival, cardiomyopathy, growth, and motor function in patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease compared with outcomes expected for patients without treatment.
Article: Cross-reactive immunologic material status affects treatment outcomes in Pompe disease infants[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) causes Pompe disease, which is usually fatal if onset occurs in infancy. Patients synthesize a non-functional form of GAA or are unable to form native enzyme. Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human GAA (rhGAA) prolongs survival in infantile Pompe patients but may be less effective in cross-reactive immunologic material (CRIM)-negative patients. We retrospectively analyzed the influence of CRIM status on outcome in 21 CRIM-positive and 11 CRIM-negative infantile Pompe patients receiving rhGAA. Patients were from the clinical setting and from clinical trials of rhGAA, were ⩽6 months of age, were not invasively ventilated, and were treated with IV rhGAA at a cumulative or total dose of 20 or 40 mg/kg/2 weeks. Outcome measures included survival, invasive ventilator-free survival, cardiac status, gross motor development, development of antibodies to rhGAA, and levels of urinary Glc4.Following 52 weeks of treatment, 6/11 (54.5%) CRIM-negative and 1/21 (4.8%) CRIM-positive patients were deceased or invasively ventilated (p < 0.0001). By age 27.1 months, all CRIM-negative patients and 4/21 (19.0%) CRIM-positive patients were deceased or invasively ventilated. Cardiac function and gross motor development improved significantly more in the CRIM-positive group. IgG antibodies to rhGAA developed earlier and serotiters were higher and more sustained in the CRIM-negative group. CRIM-negative status predicted reduced overall survival and invasive ventilator-free survival and poorer clinical outcomes in infants with Pompe disease treated with rhGAA. The effect of CRIM status on outcome appears to be mediated by antibody responses to the exogenous protein.Molecular Genetics and Metabolism.
Article: Use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate cardiac structure, function and fibrosis in children with infantile Pompe disease on enzyme replacement therapy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pompe disease (acid α-glucosidase deficiency) is one of several lysosomal storage diseases amenable to treatment with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). While echocardiography (echo) has been the standard method to evaluate the cardiac response to ERT, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has the advantage of a better tissue definition and characterization of myocardial fibrosis. However, CMR for Pompe disease is not frequently performed due to a high risk of sedation. We report the first use of CMR in a feasible protocol to quantify left ventricular (LV) mass, function, and the presence of myocardial fibrosis in the Pompe population. Children with Pompe disease on ERT were assessed with transthoracic echo and CMR over a 3 year period at a single institution. Echocardiography was performed using standard techniques without sedation. CMR was performed using retrospectively gated and real-time imaging, with and without sedation. LV mass indexed to body surface area (LVMI) and ejection fraction (EF) were measured by both echo and CMR, and evaluated for change over time. Myocardial fibrosis was assessed by CMR with delayed enhancement imaging 5-10 min after gadolinium contrast using single shot inversion recovery sequences with inversion time set to null the signal from normal myocardium. Seventeen CMR scans were successfully performed in 10 subjects with Pompe disease (median age at first CMR is 9 months, range 1-38 months, 80% male), with sedation only performed in 4 studies. There was a median interval of 5 months (range 0-34 months) from the start of ERT to first CMR (baseline). At baseline, the median indexed LVMI by CMR (140.0 g/m(2), range 43.8-334.0) tended to be lower than that assessed by echo (median 204.0 g/m(2), range 52.0-385.0), but did not reach statistical significance. At baseline, CMR EF was similar to that assessed by echo (55% vs. 55%). Overall, there was no significant decrease in CMR measured LVMI over time (CMR median LVMI at baseline 94 g/m(2) (range 43.8-334) vs. CMR median at most recent study 44.5 g/m(2) (range 34-303), p=0.44). In 5 patients with serial CMR scans over time, LVMI decreased in 2, was similar in 2, and increased in 1 patient with high sustained antibodies to exogenous enzyme. Delayed enhancement was noted in only l separate patient who also had high sustained antibodies to exogenous enzyme. CMR is an imaging tool that is feasible to use to serially follow LVMI and EF in children with Pompe disease on ERT. Real-time imaging is adequate for quantification purposes in these patients and minimizes the need for sedation. Quantitative CMR LVMI is generally lower than echo derived LVMI. Delayed enhancement appears to be a rare finding by CMR in Pompe disease. A further follow-up is necessary to better understand the long term effects of ERT in infantile Pompe survivors, especially those with high sustained antibody titers or advanced cardiac disease at treatment outset.Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 07/2010; 101(4):332-7. · 3.19 Impact Factor