Article

Resolving design problems in equivalency trials

Center for International Health and Development, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Journal of Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.74). 08/2006; 149(1):12-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.02.036
Source: PubMed
0 Bookmarks
 · 
58 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To report on (1) psychometric properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES) studied in adolescents with ADHD, (2) correlations of SES with ADHD scale scores, and (3) change in patient-reported self-esteem with atomoxetine treatment. ADHD patients (12-17 years), treated in an open-label study for 24 weeks. Secondary analyses on ADHD symptoms (assessed with ADHD-RS, CGI, GIPD scales) and self-esteem (SES) were performed. One hundred and fifty-nine patients were treated. A dichotomous structure of the SES could be confirmed. Reliability and internal consistency were moderate to excellent. Highest coefficients were found for the correlation between SES and GIPD scores. Self-esteem significantly increased over time, accompanied by an improvement of ADHD symptoms and related perceived difficulties. The Rosenberg SES was shown to be internally consistent, reliable, and sensitive to treatment-related changes of self-esteem. According to these findings, self-esteem may be an important individual patient outcome beyond the core symptoms of ADHD.
    ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders 12/2009; 1(2):187-200. DOI:10.1007/s12402-009-0011-5
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the efficacy of a short course of antibiotics (<4 days) in comparison to a longer course (>4 days) for the treatment of acute otitis media in children. Electronic databases, hand search of reviews, bibliographies of books, abstracts and proceedings of international conferences. Randomized controlled trials of the empiric treatment of acute otitis media comparing antibiotic regimens of <4 days versus > 4 days in children between four weeks to eighteen years of age were included. The trials were grouped by pharmacokinetic behavior of short-course antibiotics into short-acting antibiotics, parenteral ceftriaxone, and long-acting azithromycin. We reviewed 35 trials, which provided 38 analytic components. Overall, there was no evidence of an increased risk of treatment failure until one month with a short-course of antibiotics (RR=1.06, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.17, P=0.298). Use of short-acting oral antibiotic in short-course was associated with a significantly increased risk of treatment failure (RR=2.27, 95% CI: 1.04 to 4.99). There was a slightly increased risk of treatment failure with parenteral ceftriaxone (RR=1.13, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.30). The risk of adverse effects was significantly lower with short-course regimens (RR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.70). There is no evidence of an increased risk of treatment failure with short course of antibiotics for acute otitis media. Among the short course regimens, azithromycin use was associated with a lower risk of treatment failure while short acting oral antibiotics and parenteral ceftriaxone may be associated with a higher risk of treatment failure.
    Indian pediatrics 09/2009; 47(1):74-87. DOI:10.1007/s13312-010-0010-9 · 1.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ObjectiveTo determine the efficacy of a short course of antibiotics (<4 days) in comparison to a longer course (≥4 days) for the treatment of acute otitis media in children. Data sourcesElectronic databases, hand search of reviews, bibliographies of books, abstracts and proceedings of international conferences. Review MethodsRandomized controlled trials of the empiric treatment of acute otitis media comparing antibiotic regimens of <4 days versus ≥4 days in children between four weeks to eighteen years of age were included. The trials were grouped by pharmacokinetic behavior of short-course antibiotics into short-acting antibiotics, parenteral ceftriaxone, and long-acting azithromycin. ResultsWe reviewed 35 trials, which provided 38 analytic components. Overall, there was no evidence of an increased risk of treatment failure until one month with a short-course of antibiotics (RR=1.06, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.17, P=0.298). Use of short-acting oral antibiotic in short-course was associated with a significantly increased risk of treatment failure (RR=2.27, 95% CI: 1.04 to 4.99). There was a slightly increased risk of treatment failure with parenteral ceftriaxone (RR=1.13, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.30). The risk of adverse effects was significantly lower with short-course regimens (RR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.70). ConclusionThere is no evidence of an increased risk of treatment failure with short course of antibiotics for acute otitis media. Among the short-course regimens, azithromycin use was associated with a lower risk of treatment failure while short-acting oral antibiotics and parenteral ceftriaxone may be associated with a higher risk of treatment failure. Key WordsAcute otitis media-Antibiotics-Children-Management-Short-course therapy-Systematic review
    Indian pediatrics 47(1):74-87. · 1.01 Impact Factor