Anemia, renal dysfunction, and their interaction in patients with chronic heart failure.
ABSTRACT Anemia and renal dysfunction (RD) are frequent complications seen in chronic heart failure (HF). However, the prevalence and interaction of these co-morbidities in a representative population of outpatients with chronic HF is poorly described. In this study, it was sought to determine the association between RD and anemia in patients with HF enrolled in a community-based HF program. Nine hundred fifty-five patients with HF due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction were investigated for the prevalence of anemia and its cause and followed for a median of 531 days. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin < 12.0 g/dl in women and < 13.0 g/dl in men. RD was defined as a calculated glomerular filtration rate of < 60 ml/min. The prevalence of anemia was 32%. Fifty-three percent of patients with and 27% of those without anemia had > or = 1 test suggesting hematinic deficiency. The prevalence of RD was 54%. Forty-one percent of patients with and 22% of patients without RD had anemia, with similar proportions associated with iron deficiency in the presence or absence of RD. Anemia and RD independently predicted a worse outcome, and this effect was additive. In conclusion, in outpatients with chronic HF, anemia and RD are common and co-exist but confer independent prognostic information. A deficiency of conventional hematinic factors may cause about 1/3 of anemia in this clinical setting.
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ABSTRACT: Renal dysfunction is associated with a variety of cardiac alterations including left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, LV dilation, and reduction in systolic and diastolic function. It is common and associated with an increased mortality risk in heart failure (HF) patients. This study was designed to evaluate whether severe diastolic dysfunction contribute to the increased mortality risk observed in HF patients with renal dysfunction. Using Cox Proportional Hazard Models on data (N = 669) from the EchoCardiography and Heart Outcome Study (ECHOS) study we evaluated whether estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was associated with mortality risk before and after adjustment for severe diastolic dysfunction. Severe diastolic dysfunction was defined by a restrictive left ventricular filling pattern (RF) (=deceleration time < 140 ms) by Doppler echocardiography. Median eGFR was 58 ml/min/1.73 m2, left ventricular ejection fraction was 33% and RF was observed in 48%. During the 7 year follow up period 432 patients died. Multivariable adjusted eGFR was associated with similar mortality risk before (Hazard Ratio(HR)eGFR 10 ml increase: 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89-0.99, P = 0.024) and after (HReGFR 10 ml increase: 0.93 (0.89-0.99), P = 0.012) adjustment for RF (HR: 1.57 (1.28-1.93), P < 0.001). In patients admitted with HF RF does not contribute to the increased mortality risk observed in patients with a decreased eGFR. Factors other than severe diastolic dysfunction may explain the association between renal function and mortality risk in HF patients.BMC Nephrology 12/2013; 14(1):267. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the prognostic impact of atherosclerotic renovascular disease in patients with chronic heart failure. Patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. Renal artery stenosis (RAS) was defined as a luminal narrowing >50%. Of the 366 patients investigated, 112 (31%) had RAS, of whom 41 had bilateral RAS. Patients with RAS were older (P < 0.001), had higher blood pressure (P < 0.001), and worse renal function (P = 0.001). In addition, these patients had more admissions and more prolonged hospital stays because of vascular events (0.09 ± 0.26 vs. 0.02 ± 0.16 admissions/per patient/year; P < 0.001; and 1.26 ± 5.79 vs. 0.31 ± 2.54 days/per patient/year; P < 0.001, respectively) and worse prognosis (hazard ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.10-2.34, P = 0.015). However, in multivariable analysis, a history of diabetes mellitus, decreasing haemoglobin, and increasing left ventricular end-systolic volume index, but not age and RAS, were independently related to outcome. RAS is a common finding in patients suffering from heart failure. Although it is associated with an increased vascular morbidity, it is not an independent predictor of mortality.European Journal of Heart Failure 04/2012; 14(7):764-72. · 5.25 Impact Factor