Anemia, renal dysfunction, and their interaction in patients with chronic heart failure.
ABSTRACT Anemia and renal dysfunction (RD) are frequent complications seen in chronic heart failure (HF). However, the prevalence and interaction of these co-morbidities in a representative population of outpatients with chronic HF is poorly described. In this study, it was sought to determine the association between RD and anemia in patients with HF enrolled in a community-based HF program. Nine hundred fifty-five patients with HF due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction were investigated for the prevalence of anemia and its cause and followed for a median of 531 days. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin < 12.0 g/dl in women and < 13.0 g/dl in men. RD was defined as a calculated glomerular filtration rate of < 60 ml/min. The prevalence of anemia was 32%. Fifty-three percent of patients with and 27% of those without anemia had > or = 1 test suggesting hematinic deficiency. The prevalence of RD was 54%. Forty-one percent of patients with and 22% of patients without RD had anemia, with similar proportions associated with iron deficiency in the presence or absence of RD. Anemia and RD independently predicted a worse outcome, and this effect was additive. In conclusion, in outpatients with chronic HF, anemia and RD are common and co-exist but confer independent prognostic information. A deficiency of conventional hematinic factors may cause about 1/3 of anemia in this clinical setting.
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ABSTRACT: AimsLimited data are available on iron parameters in patients hospitalized for decompensation of chronic heart failure.Methods and resultsIron parameters of patients hospitalized for decompensation of chronic heart failure were prospectively assessed during the 72 h after hospital admission. Iron deficiency was defined according to the 2012 European Society of Cardiology Guidelines. Overall, 411 men (75 ± 12 years; 75% NYHA functional classes III/IV) and 421 women (81 ± 11 years; 71% NYHA classes III/IV) were evaluated. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 69% in men and 75% in women (including 41% and 49% with absolute iron deficiency, respectively). The prevalence of anaemia in men (<13 g/dL) was 68% and in women (<12 g/dL) it was 52%. Among non-anaemic patients, the prevalence of iron deficiency was 57% in men and 79% in women. Only 9% of patients received iron supplementation at the time of admission (oral, 9%; intravenous, 0.2%). Multivariate analysis showed that anaemia and antiplatelet treatment in men, and diabetes and low C-reactive protein in women, were independently associated with iron deficiency.Conclusions Iron deficiency is very common in patients admitted for acute decompensated heart failure, even among non-anaemic patients. Given the benefit of iron therapy in chronic heart failure, our results emphasize the need to assess iron status not only in chronic heart failure patients, but even more so in those admitted for worsening heart failure, regardless of gender, heart failure severity, or haemoglobin level. Initiating iron therapy in hospitalized heart failure patients needs to be investigated.European Journal of Heart Failure 07/2014; · 6.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In patients with heart failure, iron deficiency is frequent but overlooked, with a prevalence of 30%-50%. Since it contributes to cardiac and peripheral muscle dysfunction, iron deficiency is associated with poorer clinical outcomes and a greater risk of death, independent of haemoglobin level. Therefore, iron deficiency emerges as a new comorbidity and a therapeutic target of chronic heart failure in addition to chronic renal insufficiency, anaemia and diabetes. In a series of placebo-controlled, randomised studies in patients with heart failure and iron deficiency, intravenous iron had a favourable effect on exercise capacity, functional class, LVEF, renal function and quality of life. These clinical studies were performed in the context of a renewed interest in iron metabolism. During the past 10 years, knowledge about the transport, storage and homeostasis of iron has improved dramatically, and new molecules involved in iron metabolism have been described (eg, hepcidin, ferroportin, divalent metal transporter 1). Recent European guidelines recommend the monitoring of iron parameters (ie, serum ferritin, transferrin saturation) for all patients with heart failure. Ongoing clinical trials will explore the benefits of iron deficiency correction on various heart failure parameters.Heart (British Cardiac Society) 06/2014; · 6.02 Impact Factor
- Circulation Heart Failure 03/2014; 7(2):237-238. · 6.68 Impact Factor