Anemia, renal dysfunction, and their interaction in patients with chronic heart failure.
ABSTRACT Anemia and renal dysfunction (RD) are frequent complications seen in chronic heart failure (HF). However, the prevalence and interaction of these co-morbidities in a representative population of outpatients with chronic HF is poorly described. In this study, it was sought to determine the association between RD and anemia in patients with HF enrolled in a community-based HF program. Nine hundred fifty-five patients with HF due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction were investigated for the prevalence of anemia and its cause and followed for a median of 531 days. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin < 12.0 g/dl in women and < 13.0 g/dl in men. RD was defined as a calculated glomerular filtration rate of < 60 ml/min. The prevalence of anemia was 32%. Fifty-three percent of patients with and 27% of those without anemia had > or = 1 test suggesting hematinic deficiency. The prevalence of RD was 54%. Forty-one percent of patients with and 22% of patients without RD had anemia, with similar proportions associated with iron deficiency in the presence or absence of RD. Anemia and RD independently predicted a worse outcome, and this effect was additive. In conclusion, in outpatients with chronic HF, anemia and RD are common and co-exist but confer independent prognostic information. A deficiency of conventional hematinic factors may cause about 1/3 of anemia in this clinical setting.
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ABSTRACT: The present analysis examines the prognostic implications of moderate renal insufficiency in patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Chronic elevations in intracardiac filling pressures may lead to progressive ventricular dilation and heart failure progression. The ability to maintain fluid balance and prevent increased intracardiac filling pressures is critically dependent on the adequacy of renal function. This is a retrospective analysis of the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) Trials, in which moderate renal insufficiency is defined as a baseline creatinine clearance <60 ml/min, as estimated from the Cockroft-Gault equation. In the SOLVD Prevention Trial, multivariate analyses demonstrated moderate renal insufficiency to be associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality (Relative Risk [RR] 1.41; p = 0.001), largely explained by an increased risk for pump-failure death (RR 1.68; p = 0.007) and the combined end point death or hospitalization for heart failure (RR 1.33; p = 0.001). Likewise, in the Treatment Trial, multivariate analyses demonstrated moderate renal insufficiency to be associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality (RR 1.41; p = 0.001), also largely explained by an increased risk for pump-failure death (RR 1.49; p = 0.007) and the combined end point death or hospitalization for heart failure (RR 1.45; p = 0.001). Even moderate degrees of renal insufficiency are independently associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure, largely explained by an increased risk of heart failure progression. These data suggest that, rather than simply being a marker of the severity of underlying disease, the adequacy of renal function may be a primary determinant of compensation in patients with heart failure, and therapy capable of improving renal function may delay disease progression.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2000; 35(3):681-9. · 14.09 Impact Factor
- American Journal of Epidemiology 06/1976; 103(5):506-11. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A mild anaemia is often found in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), but its significance is uncertain. In an open uncontrolled study we investigated the effect of correcting this anaemia [haemoglobin (Hb) 9.5-11.5 g%] with subcutaneous (s.c.) erythropoietin (Epo) and intravenous (i.v.) iron (Fe) in 179 patients, 84 type II diabetics and 95 non-diabetics, with moderate to severe CHF which was resistant to maximally tolerated doses of standard CHF medications. Epo, s.c., was given every 1-3 weeks to achieve and maintain the Hb at 12.5 g%. Fe (Fe sucrose-Venofer) was added i.v. as necessary to maintain the Fe stores. Duration of treatment was 11.8 + 8.2 months. With the Epo-Fe treatment the Hb increased from 10.41 +/- 1.0 to 13.1 +/- 1.3 g% in diabetics and from 10.5 +/- 1.0 to 12.9 +/- 1.2 g% in non-diabetics. Comparing the diabetics and non-diabetics, the New York Heart Association functional class improved by 34.8 and 32.4%, respectively. breathlessness and/or fatigue, as measured by a self-administered Visual Analogue Scale, improved by 69.7 and 67.4%, and the left ventricular ejection fraction improved by 7.4 and 11.5%, respectively. The number of hospitalizations fell by 96.4 and 95.3%, respectively, compared with the pre-treatment period. Although the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was falling at a rate of approximately 1 ml/min/month before the study in both groups, neither the mean serum creatinine nor the GFR changed significantly during the study period. The mean dose of Epo needed, measured in IU/week/kg body weight, was similar in the two groups. The correction of the mild anaemia that was found in diabetics and non-diabetics with resistant CHF and mild to moderate chronic renal failure improved the cardiac function and patient functional status, stabilized the renal function and markedly reduced the need for hospitalization.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2003; 18(1):141-6. · 3.37 Impact Factor