Emotion perception deficits have been extensively documented in schizophrenia and are associated with poor social functioning. Yet fundamental questions about the nature and scope of these impairments remain unanswered from commonly used experimental tasks. An alternative categorical perception paradigm that focuses on distinguishing boundaries between emotions was used to evaluate whether schizophrenia patients demonstrate atypical patterns of categorical perception and a negativity bias in the identification of ambiguous facial expressions.
47 schizophrenia outpatients and 31 nonpsychiatric controls completed a forced-choice emotion identification task. Stimuli consisted of a series of digitized facial images that were morphed in 10% signal intensity increments along continua between pairs of emotions (happy-sad; fearful-happy; angry-fearful; angry-sad) and presented in a random order. For each emotion continuum, measures of the response slope and the location of the boundary shift point between emotions were calculated for each group.
The schizophrenia group demonstrated significantly shallower response curves than controls across all emotion continua. Despite these generally less precise demarcations between emotions, patients did not significantly differ from controls in the location of the shift point between emotions on any of the continua.
Schizophrenia patients demonstrated impaired categorical perception of facial expressions with generally less sharp categorizations of ambiguous stimuli to one emotion category or another. However, patients did not demonstrate a negativity bias in their processing of ambiguous facial expressions. The emotional continuum paradigm can help to clarify the nature and boundaries of affect perception deficits in schizophrenia.
"Thus, it appears that the similarity of negative emotions is in part responsible for deficits in recognition accuracy in patients with schizophrenia. The errors in the attribution and categorization of emotions, found in the current study and previously reported elsewhere (Kee et al., 2006; Kohler et al., 2003), may contribute to some of the deficits in socialization observed in schizophrenia, in that intended meanings behind subtle or ambiguous emotional cues may be misinterpreted. This tendency towards misinterpretation might be one reason why patients with paranoid schizophrenia frequently misjudge the language or behavior of others as persecutory, potentially contributing to the development of delusions. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Facial emotion recognition has been found to be impaired in schizophrenia, although overall results have been inconclusive. A new set of facial emotion stimuli with Chinese faces was developed, using static and dynamic avatars, the identification of which were subsequently validated in 562 healthy control subjects. This test was then used to identify facial emotion recognition accuracy in 44 patients with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Overall, patients identified facial emotions significantly worse than healthy controls (p = 0.018) with a significant main effect for type of emotion (p = 0.016). Patients performed significantly worse in fear (p = 0.029) and sadness (p = 0.037), and marginally worse in anger (p = 0.052). No significant differences were evident in contempt (p = 0.254) or happiness (p = 0.943). Regarding error rates of misattribution, patients overidentified contempt (p = 0.035) and sadness (p = 0.01), but not anger, fear, or happiness. Conclusion, patients of Chinese ethnicity with schizophrenia may have significantly greater difficulties identifying negative, but not positive emotions.
The Journal of nervous and mental disease 07/2015; 203(9). DOI:10.1097/NMD.0000000000000358 · 1.69 Impact Factor
"В основном в качестве объектов восприятия используется материал, созданный на основе представлений о базовых эмоциях и культурной универсальности их проявлений в мимике и оценок наблюдателями (Ekman, 1994; Ekman, Friesen, 1978). Существует целый ряд исследований, посвященных категориальному восприятию выражений базовых эмоций на лице — как взрослыми (Calder et al., 1996; Fugate, 2013; de Gelder et al., 1997; Young et al., 1997), так и детьми и младенцами (Cheal, Rutherford, 2011; Kotsoni et al., 2001), а также при различных нарушениях психики (Kee et al., 2006; Teunisse, de Gelder, 2001). Вместе с тем имеющиеся на сегодняшний день результаты зачастую являются противоречивыми и неоднородными: так, в ряде работ эффекта категориальности не наблюдалось на отдельных эмоциональных экспрессиях (например, при различении переходных экспрессий между гневом и радостью или гневом и страхом — см. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We explored the effect of categorical perception of emotional facial expressions. Using artificially generated computer “morphs” and natural expressions of a male poser, we studied the identification and discrimination of transitional expressions between images of basic human emotions. The results showed that the distance in perceptual space based on the identification of emotions is a significant predictor of expressions’ discrimination accuracy. The obtained results do not support the hypothesis of an absolute categorical effect, but are consistent with the two-stage model of facial expression categorization (Huttenlocher et al., 2000; Roberson et al., 2007), suggesting a gradual increase in the efficiency of discrimination when distance from the category center is increased.
"Moreover, previous researchers have found that in social perception and emotion categorization perception tasks, patients with schizophrenia utilized less available contextual information than healthy controls (Penn et al., 2002; Huang et al., 2009b). When processing ambiguous facial expression, outpatients with schizophrenia did not show negative bias (Kee et al., 2006) while actively paranoid patients with schizophrenia would attribute anger to neutral faces (Pinkham et al., 2011). Given the aforementioned findings showing deficits of social perception observed in patients with schizophrenia, we examined whether the cognitive bias in emotion perception, if present, and the accuracy of emotion/intention perception in social context was related to the deficits in the three components of social problem solving in schizophrenia. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions.
Psychiatry Research 07/2014; 220(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.07.043 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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