Risk factors for isolation of low-level mupirocin-resistant versus -susceptible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from patients in intensive care units.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for the recovery of low-level mupirocin-resistant (mup(r)) or -susceptible (mup(s)) MRSA from patients in intensive care units (ICUs).
A case-case-control study was conducted from November 2003 to April 2004. Two case groups consisted of patients with low-level mup(r) MRSA and mup(s) MRSA. A control group was frequency matched.
Mup(r) MRSA and mup(s) MRSA were isolated from 20 to 51 patients, respectively, during a six-month period. Risk factors identified for mup(r) MRSA were as follows: exposure to piperacillin-tazobactam (odds ratio [OR] 13.8; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.8-105.0), third-generation cephalosporins (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.6-15.5) and quinolones (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.1-10.7). Risk factors identified for mup(s) MRSA were as follows: length of ICU stay (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1), surgery (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.5-9.0), exposure to third-generation cephalosporins (OR, 8.4; 95% CI, 3.3-21.7) and quinolones (OR, 7.7; 95% CI, 2.8-21.3).
Our results suggest that nosocomial isolation of low-level mup(r) MRSA may be affected by piperacillin-tazobactam.
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ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging problem with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study determined risk factors for the recovery of piperacillin-tazobactam-resistant P. aeruginosa from clinical cultures from hospitalized patients. A case-control study design was used to compare two groups of case patients with control patients. The first group of case patients was defined by nosocomial isolation of piperacillin-tazobactam-resistant P. aeruginosa, and the second group of cases yielded piperacillin-tazobactam-susceptible P. aeruginosa. Controls were selected in a 6:1 ratio from the same medical or surgical services among which piperacillin-tazobactam-resistant P. aeruginosa arose in patients. Risk factors analyzed included antimicrobial drug exposure, comorbid conditions, and demographics. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Piperacillin-tazobactam-resistant P. aeruginosa was isolated from 179 patients, and piperacillin-tazobactam-susceptible P. aeruginosa was isolated from 624 patients over a 2.5-year period. Piperacillin-tazobactam (odds ratio [OR] = 6.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.56 to 10.21), imipenem (OR = 2.42; 95% CI, 1.19 to 4.94), aminoglycosides (OR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.44 to 3.28), vancomycin (OR = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.89), and broad-spectrum cephalosporins (OR = 2.38; 95% CI, 1.45 to 3.88) were the antibiotics associated with the isolation of piperacillin-tazobactam-resistant P. aeruginosa. Exposure to vancomycin (OR = 1.53; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.06) or ampicillin-sulbactam (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 1.62 to 3.21) was associated with recovery of piperacillin-tazobactam-susceptible P. aeruginosa. In this study, antibiotics associated with piperacillin-tazobactam-susceptible P. aeruginosa were different from antibiotics associated with piperacillin-tazobactam-resistant P. aeruginosa. Piperacillin-tazobactam was a strong risk factor for piperacillin-tazobactam-resistant P. aeruginosa. Our results suggest that the nosocomial isolation of piperacillin-tazobactam-resistant P. aeruginosa may be affected by multiple antibiotics.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2002; 46(3):854-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus have an increased risk of surgical-site infections caused by that organism. Treatment with mupirocin ointment can reduce the rate of nasal carriage and may prevent postoperative S. aureus infections. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether intranasal treatment with mupirocin reduces the rate of S. aureus infections at surgical sites and prevents other nosocomial infections. Of 4030 enrolled patients who underwent general, gynecologic, neurologic, or cardiothoracic surgery, 3864 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Overall, 2.3 percent of mupirocin recipients and 2.4 percent of placebo recipients had S. aureus infections at surgical sites. Of the 891 patients (23.1 percent of the 3864 who completed the study) who had S. aureus in their anterior nares, 444 received mupirocin and 447 received placebo. Among the patients with nasal carriage of S. aureus, 4.0 percent of those who received mupirocin had nosocomial S. aureus infections, as compared with 7.7 percent of those who received placebo (odds ratio for infection, 0.49; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.25 to 0.92; P=0.02). Prophylactic intranasal application of mupirocin did not significantly reduce the rate of S. aureus surgical-site infections overall, but it did significantly decrease the rate of all nosocomial S. aureus infections among the patients who were S. aureus carriers.New England Journal of Medicine 07/2002; 346(24):1871-7. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that perioperative elimination of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus using mupirocin nasal ointment reduces the surgical-site infection (SSI) rate in cardiothoracic surgery. Unblinded intervention trial with historical controls. A university hospital, tertiary referral center for cardiothoracic surgery. Consecutive patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery between August 1, 1989, and February 1, 1991 (historical control group), and between March 1, 1991, and August 1, 1992 (intervention group). The historical control group consisted of 928 patients and the intervention group of 868, of whom 752 actually were treated. The 116 patients who were unintentionally not treated were considered as a concurrent control group. In the intention-to-treat analysis, a significant reduction in SSI rate was observed after the intervention (historical-control group 7.3% and intervention group 2.8%; P < .0001). The SSI rate in the concurrent control group was significantly higher than in the treated group (7.8% and 2.0%, respectively; P = .0023). Resistance of S aureus to mupirocin was not observed. The results of this study indicate that perioperative elimination of nasal carriage using mupirocin nasal ointment significantly reduces the SSI rate in cardiothoracic surgery patients and warrants a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled efficacy trial. This preventive measure may be beneficial in other categories of surgical patients as well.Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 12/1996; 17(12):780-5. · 4.02 Impact Factor