Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study).
ABSTRACT Atherosclerosis develops from early childhood; physical activity could positively affect this process. This study's aim was to assess the associations of objectively measured physical activity with clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and derive guidelines on the basis of this analysis.
We did a cross-sectional study of 1732 randomly selected 9-year-old and 15-year-old school children from Denmark, Estonia, and Portugal. Risk factors included in the composite risk factor score (mean of Z scores) were systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, insulin resistance, sum of four skinfolds, and aerobic fitness. Individuals with a risk score above 1 SD of the composite variable were defined as being at risk. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry.
Odds ratios for having clustered risk for ascending quintiles of physical activity (counts per min; cpm) were 3.29 (95% CI 1.96-5.52), 3.13 (1.87-5.25), 2.51 (1.47-4.26), and 2.03 (1.18-3.50), respectively, compared with the most active quintile. The first to the third quintile of physical activity had a raised risk in all analyses. The mean time spent above 2000 cpm in the fourth quintile was 116 min per day in 9-year-old and 88 min per day in 15-year-old children.
Physical activity levels should be higher than the current international guidelines of at least 1 h per day of physical activity of at least moderate intensity to prevent clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors.
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9-11 years) complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane-Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p < 0.001) from none to all seven days of children complying with the guidelines. The count model explained 22% of the variance in meeting MVPA guidelines daily. Being a girl, having a higher BMI, belonging to families with higher income, sleeping more and taking greater time walking from home to a sporting venue significantly reduced the probability of meeting daily recommended MVPA across the seven days. Furthermore, compared to girls, increasing sleep time in boys increased their chances of compliance with the MVPA recommendations. These results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates' roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children.
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ABSTRACT: Background/Objective: Increased physical activity (PA) and decreased sedentary behaviors (SB) may have beneficial effects on cardio-metabolic risk in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between independent/combined effects of PA and SB with individual/clustered cardio-metabolic risk factors. Methods: A sample of 769 adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) from the HELENA cross-sectional study (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) and with valid data on metabolic risk factors were included. Results: Concerning moderate-to-vigorous-PA (MVPA) and vigorous-PA (VPA), measured with accelerometers, girls tended to do more MVPA (36%) and VPA (114%) than boys. Unadjusted analyses show a positive association between “PA≥60min/d; SB≥2h” and the ratio TC/HDL-c (β= 0.27; 95%CI 0.01 to 0.52; p<0.05), and a negative association between “MVPA≥60min/d; SB<2h” with the ∑4Skinfolds (β=-0.32; 95%CI -0.61 to -0.02; p<0.05). Moreover, “SB≥2h/d” was associated with increased cardio-metabolic risk (PR 1.59; 95%CI 1.05 to 2.39; p<0.05), while “PA≥60min/d; SB<2h” had a protective effect against cardio-metabolic risk (PR 0.48; 95%CI 0.25 to 0.91; p<0.05). After adjustment for potential confounders, a positive association between SB and ∑4Skinfolds was shown (β= 0.28; 95%CI 0.04 to 0.53; p<0.05). Furthermore, VO2max (mL/Kg/min) tend to increase in those participants who do higher VPA and less SB (p=0.042), and there was a protective effect of “VPA≥30min/d; SB<2h” against cardio-metabolic risk (PR 0.24; 95%CI 0.07 to 0.85; p<0.05). Conclusion: The current study suggests that adolescents should be encouraged to decrease sedentary lifestyle and increase physical activity, especially vigorous physical activity, in order to reduce cardio-metabolic risk.International Journal of Cardiology 03/2015; 186. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.03.176 · 6.18 Impact Factor
1º edição 01/2014; Novas Edições Acadêmicas., ISBN: 978-3-639-68775-0