One hundred percent fascial approximation with sequential abdominal closure of the open abdomen.
ABSTRACT Damage-control surgery and the recognition of the abdominal compartment syndrome have improved patient outcomes but at the cost of an open abdomen. Multiple techniques have been introduced to obtain fascial closure for the open abdomen to minimize morbidity and cost of care. We performed a modification of the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) technique that provided constant fascial tension, hypothesizing this would result in a higher rate of primary fascial closure.
After initial temporary closure of the abdomen after post-injury damage control or decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome, we began the sequential closure technique. The technique begins by covering the bowel with the multiple white sponges overlapped like patchwork, and the fascia is placed under moderate tension over the white sponges with #1-PDS sutures. Large black VAC sponges are placed on top of the white sponges and affixed with an occlusive dressing and standard suction tubing is placed. Patients are returned to the operating room for sequential fascial closure and replacement of the sponge sandwich every 2 days, with a resulting decrease in the fascial defect.
Fourteen patients underwent sequential abdominal closure during the study period: 9 owing to damage control surgery and 5 owing to secondary abdominal compartment syndrome. Average time to closure was 7.5 +/- 1.0 days (range 4-16) and average number of laparotomies to closure was 4.6 +/- 0.5 (range 3-8). All patients attained primary fascial closure.
We propose a modification of the previously described vacuum-assisted closure technique that achieves 100% fascial approximation in our limited experience. Further application and refinement of this technique may eliminate the need for delayed complex and costly reconstructive abdominal wall procedures for the open abdomen.
Article: Temporary closure of the open abdomen: a systematic review on delayed primary fascial closure in patients with an open abdomen.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to systematically review the literature to assess which temporary abdominal closure (TAC) technique is associated with the highest delayed primary fascial closure (FC) rate. In some cases of abdominal trauma or infection, edema or packing precludes fascial closure after laparotomy. This "open abdomen" must then be temporarily closed. However, the FC rate varies between techniques. The Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases were searched until December 2007. References were checked for additional studies. Search criteria included (synonyms of) "open abdomen," "fascial closure," "vacuum," "reapproximation," and "ventral hernia." Open abdomen was defined as "the inability to close the abdominal fascia after laparotomy." Two reviewers independently extracted data from original articles by using a predefined checklist. The search identified 154 abstracts of which 96 were considered relevant. No comparative studies were identified. After reading them, 51 articles, including 57 case series were included. The techniques described were vacuum-assisted closure (VAC; 8 series), vacuum pack (15 series), artificial burr (4 series), Mesh/sheet (16 series), zipper (7 series), silo (3 series), skin closure (2 series), dynamic retention sutures (DRS), and loose packing (1 series each). The highest FC rates were seen in the artificial burr (90%), DRS (85%), and VAC (60%). The lowest mortality rates were seen in the artificial burr (17%), VAC (18%), and DRS (23%). These results suggest that the artificial burr and the VAC are associated with the highest FC rates and the lowest mortality rates.World Journal of Surgery 01/2009; 33(2):199-207. · 2.36 Impact Factor
Article: Vacuum-assisted closure in severe abdominal sepsis with or without retention sutured sequential fascial closure: a clinical trial.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Multiple techniques have been introduced to obtain fascial closure for the open abdomen to minimize morbidity and cost of care. We hypothesized that a modification of the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) technique that provides constant fascial tension and prevents abdominis rectis retraction would facilitate primary fascial closure and reduce morbidity. In all, 53 patients with severe abdominal sepsis were allocated randomly into 2 groups, and 30 patients were analyzed. In the VAC group, we included patients managed only with the VAC device, whereas the retentions sutured sequential fascial closure (RSSFC) group included patients to whom RSSFC was performed. The abdomen was left open for 12 days (P = .0001) with 4.4 ± 1.35 changes per patient for the VAC group (P = .001) and 8 days with 2.87 ± 0.74 dressing changes per patient for the RSSFC group, respectively. Abdominal closure was possible in only 6 patients in the VAC group, whereas for the RSSFC group, abdominal closure was achieved in 14 patients (P = .005). Planned hernia was exclusively decided in patients in the VAC group (P = .001). The hospital stay was 17.53 ± 4.59 days for the VAC group and 11.93 ± 2.05 days for the RSSFC group (P = .0001). The median initial intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was 12 mm Hg for the VAC group and 16 mm Hg for the RSSFC group (P < .0001). We demonstrated the superiority of RSSFC compared with the single use of the VAC device. In our opinion, sequential fascial closure can immediately begin when abdominal sepsis is controlled.Surgery 03/2010; 148(5):947-53. · 3.10 Impact Factor
Article: Strategies for modulating the inflammatory response after decompression from abdominal compartment syndrome.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Management of the open abdomen is an increasingly common part of surgical practice. The purpose of this review is to examine the scientific background for the use of temporary abdominal closure (TAC) in the open abdomen as a way to modulate the local and systemic inflammatory response, with an emphasis on decompression after abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). A review of the relevant English language literature was conducted. Priority was placed on articles published within the last 5 years. Recent data from our group and others have begun to lay the foundation for the concept of TAC as a method to modulate the local and/or systemic inflammatory response in patients with an open abdomen resulting from ACS.Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 04/2012; 20:25. · 1.85 Impact Factor