Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are rare, and their prognosis and treatment are still subject of discussion. The purpose of this study is to clarify therapeutic aspects and prognostic factors of this disease.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 106 patients who had histologically confirmed PTs collected over a period of 10 years.
The mean age was 39.5 years (14-71 years). The mean tumoral size was 83 mm (15-250). According to criteria of Azzopardi and Salvadori, tumors were classified into 3 groups: benign (62 cases, 58.4%), borderline (16 cases, 15%), and malignant (28 cases, 26.4%). Eighty-two patients (77.4%) were treated conservatively (62 benign, 11 borderline, and 9 malignant) and 24 (22.6%) by radical surgery (5 borderline and 19 malignant). For malignant PTs treated by enucleation or local excision with or without reexcision of the tumor bed, the 5-year overall and disease-free survivals were 28.5% and 15.6% versus 72.7% and 73.6% when the surgery was radical (mastectomy with or without axillary dissection) (P = .12 and P = .0022). For the other histotypes, this difference disappeared. The rate of recurrence was 12.2% (13) after a mean follow-up of 39 months (5 benign, 2 borderline, and 5 malignant). The treatment of recurrences consisted of radical mastectomy (8 cases), simple mastectomy (2 cases), and local excision in 3 cases. Eight patients developed metastases, 2 of whom after recurrences. The 5-year overall and disease-free survivals were 86.54% and 78%, respectively. In univariate analysis, age and recurrences are not of prognostic value for survival, whereas tumor size, histotype, necrosis, cytonuclear atypia, tumor margins, and number of mitosis were significant prognostic factors for survival. In a multivariate study, only cytonuclear atypia remained an independent predictor for survival.
According to our results, we recommend for malignant PT a simple mastectomy, whereas for borderline and benign PT, treatment is based rather on wide excision passing in healthy tissue.