Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum in glycochenodeoxycholic acid-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes.
ABSTRACT In chronic cholestatic liver diseases, accumulation of hydrophobic bile acids is thought to damage hepatocytes. The mechanism of how cells die has been an open debate, but apoptotic pathways are known to involve activation of death receptors and mitochondrial dysfunction. Recently apoptosis via an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated pathway was also found. In this study, we examined whether ER stress is induced in rat hepatocytes by treatment with glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA, 50-300microM for 1-24h), and if so, whether ER stress-mediated apoptosis occurs in this system. We determined mobility of intracellular calcium ion, activities of calpain and caspase-12, specific to ER stress-mediated apoptosis, and Bip and Chop mRNA expressions, biomarkers of ER stress. We found that GCDCA induces ER-related calcium release within about ten seconds. Significant increases in activities of calpain and caspase-12 were observed after 15h of GCDCA treatment. Bip and Chop mRNA expressions were increased with the treated GCDCA dose and incubation time. Cytochrome c release from mitochondria peaked in about 2h of incubation. These results suggest that ER stress is actually induced by GCDCA, though its role in hepatocellular apoptosis may be smaller than mitochondria-mediated pathway. The presence of ER stress might be important in pathogenesis of cholestatic liver diseases.
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ABSTRACT: PERK and IRE1 are type-I transmembrane protein kinases that reside in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transmit stress signals in response to perturbation of protein folding. Here we show that the lumenal domains of these two proteins are functionally interchangeable in mediating an ER stress response and that, in unstressed cells, both lumenal domains form a stable complex with the ER chaperone BiP. Perturbation of protein folding promotes reversible dissociation of BiP from the lumenal domains of PERK and IRE1. Loss of BiP correlates with the formation of high-molecular-mass complexes of activated PERK or IRE1, and overexpression of BiP attenuates their activation. These findings are consistent with a model in which BiP represses signalling through PERK and IRE1 and protein misfolding relieves this repression by effecting the release of BiP from the PERK and IRE1 lumenal domains.Nature Cell Biology 05/2000; 2(6):326-332. · 20.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of synthesis and folding of secretory proteins. Perturbations of ER homeostasis affect protein folding and cause ER stress. ER can sense the stress and respond to it through translational attenuation, upregulation of the genes for ER chaperones and related proteins, and degradation of unfolded proteins by a quality-control system. However, when the ER function is severely impaired, the organelle elicits apoptotic signals. ER stress has been implicated in a variety of common diseases such as diabetes, ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. One of the components of the ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway is C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), also known as growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153). Here, we summarize the current understanding of the roles of CHOP/GADD153 in ER stress-mediated apoptosis and in diseases including diabetes, brain ischemia and neurodegenerative disease.Cell Death and Differentiation 05/2004; 11(4):381-9. · 8.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induces a coordinated adaptive program called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR alleviates stress by upregulating protein folding and degradation pathways in the ER and inhibiting protein synthesis. With a basic conceptual framework for the UPR, including the identification of key mediators of the response, now in place, recent work has turned towards investigating how the response is regulated and how its effects radiate beyond the immediate realm of protein secretion. This review highlights advances in these areas and attempts to forecast important issues that must be addressed soon.Trends in Cell Biology 02/2004; 14(1):20-8. · 11.72 Impact Factor