Pharmacologic manipulations of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) selectively in glioma cells.
ABSTRACT Metabolic control theory applies principles of bioenergetics for the control or management of complex diseases. Since metabolism is a general process underlying all biologic phenotypes, changes in metabolism can potentially modify phenotype. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that experimental modulation of the availability of cellular energy can potentially alter cell phenotypes and cell functions critical to tumor progression including cell division. The purpose of this study was to determine if OMX-2, a methylquinone system designed to shuttle electrons from mitochondrial complexes, was able to target mitochondria in cancer cells and trigger cell death. Using flow cytometry, cell viability assays, and ATP measurements, we found that OMX-2 differentially decreased DeltaPsim without triggering cell death. In contrast, known blockers of the Electron Transport Chain (ETC) decreased DeltaPsim and triggered cell death. When normal cells were treated with OMX-2, neither DeltaPsim or cell death was triggered. Furthermore, OMX-2 modulated intracellular ATP and decreased cell numbers of glioma cells. Cell cycle analysis indicated that OMX-2 induced a reversible cell cycle arrest in G1/S. Finally, impairment of glycolysis by 2-Deoxyglucose (2-DOG) acted synergistically with OMX-2 to trigger cell death. Overall, these results indicate that it is possible to selectively target cancer cells by decreasing DeltaPsim and induced cell cycle arrest without triggering cell death. Moreover, pharmacological approaches designed to act on both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation can be considered as a new approach to selectively kill cancer cells.
- SourceAvailable from: augenlichtlab.com[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Transformation of colonic epithelial cells is characterized by decreased mitochondrial activity, increased mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)), and disruptions in the equilibrium between cell proliferation and death by apoptosis. We have previously shown that an intact Deltapsi(m) is essential for growth arrest and apoptosis induced by butyrate, a physiological regulator of maturation in these cells, suggesting a role for the Deltapsi(m) in the initiation and integration of proliferation and apoptotic pathways. To extend this work, we have generated isogenic cell lines, from SW620 human colonic carcinoma cells, which exhibit significant differences in intrinsic Deltapsi(m). These differences in Deltapsi(m) are not linked to alterations in viability, Bcl-2 levels, or the differentiation status of the cells. However, compared with parental cells and those with increased Deltapsi(m), cells with decreased intrinsic Deltapsi(m) exhibit significantly higher levels of steady-state mitochondrial mRNA and butyrate-induced p21(WAF1/Cip1) and G(0)-G(1) arrest. Moreover, despite butyrate-mediated translocation of proapoptotic Bax and Bak to the mitochondria, fewer cells with elevated intrinsic Deltapsi(m) exhibit concomitant cytochrome c release, and cells with elevated Deltapsi(m) undergo significantly lower levels of Deltapsi(m) dissipation and apoptosis than parental cells, or cells with decreased Deltapsi(m). Homeostasis of the colonic mucosa depends on balancing cell proliferation with apoptosis, and mitochondrial abnormalities are associated with disruptions in this balance. Thus, by affecting steady-state mitochondrial activity and the extent to which cells enter growth arrest and apoptotic cascades, these data establish a role for the intrinsic Deltapsi(m) in contributing to the probability of colonic tumorigenesis and progression.Cancer Research 11/2003; 63(19):6311-9. · 8.65 Impact Factor
Article: Mitochondrial control of apoptosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The apoptotic process can be subdivided into three phases: a death-stimulus-dependent, heterogeneous induction phase, a common effector phase during which the ‘decision to die’ is taken, and a common degradation phase during which cells acquire the biochemical and morphological features of end-stage apoptosis. Here, Guido Kroemer, Naoufal Zamzami and Santos Susin discuss the implication of mitochondrial events in the apoptotic effector phase.Immunology Today 02/1997; 18(1):44-51.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the recruitment of blood-derived monocytes in a model of zymosan peritoneal inflammation was investigated. After zymosan injection (1 mg) a rapid influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes into the peritoneal cavity associated with mouse MCP-1 (JE) gene activation and protein secretion in the exudates occurred. MCP-1 production (maximal at 4 h) preceded the accumulation of monocytes (F4/80-positive cells, maximally recovered between 16 and 24 h). Treatment of mice with a single injection of anti-mouse MCP-1 antibody inhibited 16-h monocyte accumulation by approximately 40%, however, a significant decrease in the number of PMN was also measured. Finally, intraperitoneal injection of murine recombinant MCP-1 (1 microg) produced a selective accumulation of monocytes (F4/80-positive cells) into the peritoneal cavity. In conclusion, we show the novel existence of a strict relationship between MCP-1 production and leukocyte accumulation in this model of acute inflammation.Journal of Leukocyte Biology 02/1998; 63(1):108-16. · 4.57 Impact Factor