Modulation of host immune responses by the cytolethal distending toxin of Helicobacter hepaticus.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.
Infection and Immunity (Impact Factor: 4.16). 09/2006; 74(8):4496-504. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00503-06
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Persistent murine infection with Helicobacter hepaticus leads to chronic gastrointestinal inflammation and neoplasia in susceptible strains. To determine the role of the virulence factor cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) in the pathogenesis of this organism, interleukin-10-deficient (IL-10-/-) mice were experimentally infected with wild-type H. hepaticus and a CDT-deficient isogenic mutant. Both wild-type H. hepaticus and the CDT-deficient mutant successfully colonized IL-10-/- mice, and they reached similar tissue levels by 6 weeks after infection. Only animals infected with wild-type type H. hepaticus developed significant typhlocolitis. However, by 4 months after infection, the CDT-deficient mutant was no longer detectable in IL-10-/- mice, whereas wild-type H. hepaticus persisted for the 8-month duration of the experiment. Animals infected with wild-type H. hepaticus exhibited severe typhlocolitis at 8 months after infection, while animals originally challenged with the CDT-deficient mutant had minimal cecal inflammation at this time point. In follow-up experiments, animals that cleared infection with the CDT-deficient mutant were protected from rechallenge with either mutant or wild-type H. hepaticus. Animals infected with wild-type H. hepaticus developed serum immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2c responses against H. hepaticus, while animals challenged with the CDT-deficient mutant developed significantly lower IgG2c responses and failed to mount IgG1 responses against H. hepaticus. These results suggest that CDT plays a key immunomodulatory role that allows persistence of H. hepaticus and that in IL-10-/- mice this alteration of the host immune response results in the development of colitis.

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    Scientific Reports 01/2014; 4:4680. DOI:10.1038/srep04680 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter hepaticus was discovered in 1992 as a cause of liver cancer in the A/JCr mouse model. In susceptible mice, infection by H. hepaticus causes chronic gastrointestinal inflammation leading to neoplasia. It can also cause morphological changes in breast-glands leading to neoplasm and adenocarcinoma in mouse models. Studies performed on humans have revealed that H. hepaticus may also be a human pathogen since infection by H. hepaticus can be associated with cholecystitis, cholelithiasis and gallbladder cancer. H. hepaticus is a close relative of H. pylori, but it lacks the major virulence factors of H. pylori including vacoulating cytotoxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin associated gene (cagA). Moreover, SabA, AlpA, and BabA, three important adhesin proteins of H. pylori, are absent in its genome. In contrast, the genome of H. hepaticus contains genes encoding some orthologus virulence factors of Campylobacter jejuni such as cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), and PebI adhesin factor. Other genes including 16S rRNA, 18 KDa immunogenic protein, and urease structural subunits are related to H. pylori. Its genome contains a small island consisting of 71 Kbp named HHGI1, which probably encodes a secretion system type IV (T4SS), and some other virulence factors. As far as the immunogenic antigens are concerned, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin of H. hepaticus are weak stimulants of the immune system, while pro-inflammatory responses are mainly induced by its lipoproteins and most likely by the peptidoglycan. Concerning the multidrug efflux pumps, a homologue of H. pylori TolC, HefA, has been observed in H. hepaticus which contributes to resistance to amoxicillin and bile acids.
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    ABSTRACT: The cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) are a family of exotoxins produced by a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria. They are known for causing genotoxic stress to the cell, resulting in growth arrest and eventually apoptotic cell death. Nevertheless, there is evidence that CDTs can also perturb the innate immune responses, by regulating inflammatory cytokine production and molecular mediators of bone remodeling in various cell types. These cellular and molecular events may in turn have an effect in enhancing local inflammation in diseases where CDT-producing bacteria are involved, such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus ducreyi, Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter hepaticus. One special example is the induction of pathological bone destruction in periodontitis. The opportunistic oral pathogen Aggregatibatcer actinoycemetemcomitans, which is involved in the aggressive form of the disease, can regulate the molecular mechanisms of bone remodeling in a manner that favors bone resorption, with the potential involvement of its CDT. The present review provides an overview of all known to-date inflammatory or bone remodeling responses of CDTs produced by various bacterial species, and discusses their potential contribution to the pathogenesis of the associated diseases.
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