Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cirrhotic patients: the role of subtotal cholecystectomy and its variants.
ABSTRACT Open cholecystectomy is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy may offer a better option because of the magnification available and the availability of newer instruments like the ultrasonic shears. We present our experience of 265 laparoscopic cholecystectomies and attempt to identify the difficulties encountered in this group of patients.
Between 1991 and 2005, 265 cirrhotic patients of Child-Pugh Classification A and B, with symptomatic gallstones, were subjected to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We describe here our tailored approach and our techniques of subtotal cholecystectomy.
Features of acute cholecystitis were present in 35.1% of the patients, and 64.9% presented with chronic cholecystitis. In 81.5% of the patients, the diagnosis of cirrhosis was established preoperatively. In 8.3% of the patients, a fundus first method was adopted when the hilum could not be approached despite additional ports. Modified subtotal cholecystectomy was performed in a total of 206 patients. Mean operative time in the subtotal cholecystectomy group was 72 minutes; in the standard group, it was 41 minutes. There was no mortality. In 15% of patients, postoperative deterioration in liver function occurred. Worsening of ascites, port site infection, port site bleeding, intraoperative hemorrhage, bilious drainage, and stone formation in the remnant were the other complications encountered.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and effective treatment for calculous cholecystitis in cirrhotic patients. Appropriate modification of subtotal cholecystectomy should be practiced, depending on the risk factors present, to avoid complications.
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ABSTRACT: Digestive surgery in cirrhotic patients has long been limited to the treatment of disorders related to the liver disease (portal hypertension, hepatocellular carcinoma and umbilical hernia). The improvement in cirrhotic patient management has allowed an increase in surgical procedures for extrahepatic indications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the operative risks of such surgical procedures. Extrahepatic surgery in cirrhotic patients is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Emergency surgery, gastrointestinal tract opening (esophagus, stomach and colon), <30 g/L serum albumin, transaminase levels more than three times the upper limit of normal, ascites, and intraoperative transfusions are the main risk factors for postoperative death. In Child A patients, the operative risk of elective surgery is moderate and surgical indications are not altered by the presence of cirrhosis. The laparoscopic approach should be recommended because of the potentially lower morbidity. In Child C patients, operative mortality is often higher than 40%; surgical indications must remain exceptional and non operative management has to be preferred. In Child B patients, preoperative improvement of liver function is mandatory for lower risk surgery.Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 05/2009; 33(6-7):555-64. · 0.80 Impact Factor
Article: Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis: a prospective, randomized study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gallstones are more common in patients with liver cirrhosis than in healthy individuals. Higher morbidity and mortality were reported in cirrhotic patients with either laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy. The aim of this study was to compare laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy in cirrhotic patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis in a prospective, randomized manner. Thirty patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis associated with Child-Pugh class A or B liver cirrhosis were prospectively and randomly grouped equally to either laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy. The two groups were compared regarding operative time, morbidity, mortality, postoperative liver function, and hospital stay. The two groups were comparable regarding demographic data, preoperative and postoperative Child-Pugh scoring, mean operative time (57.3 minutes for laparoscopic and 48.5 for open), and complications (33.3% for each). Hospital stay was shorter for the laparoscopic group. One conversion (6.7%) to open surgery was reported. No periopertive mortality occurred in either group. For Child-Pugh class A and B cirrhotics, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is comparable to the open approach regarding operative time, morbidity, mortality, and effect on liver function, but with shorter hospital stay. Considering the other well-documented advantages of the laparoscopic approach, namely, less pain, earlier mobilization and feeding, and better cosmoses, laparoscopic cholecystectomy would be the first choice in cirrhotic patients.Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques 06/2010; 20(5):405-9. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In the setting of difficult dissection of Calot's triangle during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, conversion is commonly advocated. An alternative approach aimed at preventing bile duct injury is laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy (LPC). The safety and efficacy of this procedure are unclear. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed independently by three researchers. The outcomes were conversion rate, hospital length of stay (LOS), bile duct injury, bile leak, symptomatic gallstones in the remnant gallbladder, need for reoperation, postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP), percutaneous intervention, and mortality. RESULTS: The review included 15 publications, which reported on 625 patients. Four different operative techniques could be distinguished. Conversion to open (partial) cholecystectomy was performed in 10.4 % of the cases. The median LOS was 4.5 days (range, 0-48 days). The most common complication was postoperative bile leak, which occurred in 66 patients (10.6 %). One case of bile duct injury occurred. During the follow-up period, 2.2 % of the patients experienced recurrent symptoms of gallstones. Eight patients (2.7 %) underwent reoperation. Postoperative ERCP was performed for 26 (7.5 %) of 349 patients. A percutaneous intervention was performed for 5 (1.4 %) of 353 patients. Three deaths were described in the reviewed series (1 of pulmonary sepsis and 2 of myocardial infarctions). A rough comparison showed that fewer bile leaks, less need for ERCP, and less recurrent symptoms of gallstones seemed to occur when the cystic duct and gallbladder remnant were closed. CONCLUSIONS: Literature concerning LPC is scarce. Four different LPC techniques can be distinguished. When a difficult gallbladder is encountered during LC, LPC seems to be a safe and feasible alternative to conversion. Closing of the cystic duct, gallbladder remnant, or both seems to be preferable.Surgical Endoscopy 07/2012; · 4.01 Impact Factor