Evaluation of deep small bowel involvement by double-balloon enteroscopy in Crohn's disease.
ABSTRACT Double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) enables inspection of deep small bowel, and total small bowel examination can be performed by either antegrade or retrograde DBE. The aim of this study was to evaluate ileal involvement, which cannot be achieved using conventional colonoscopy, by DBE in patients with Crohn's disease.
From December 2003 to September 2005, a total of 44 patients with Crohn's disease underwent 53 examinations using DBE.
Forty patients with Crohn's disease, seven women and 33 men, underwent DBE, and the ileum was investigated in 38 patients. There were 25 cases of ileitis, 2 of colitis, and 13 of ileocolitis. Jejunal lesions were found in two and ileal lesions proximal to the terminal ileum were found in 24 patients with Crohn's disease. DBE was superior to radiological study to detect aphthae, erosions, and small ulcers in the ileum. Small bowel stricture was demonstrated in six and nine patients with DBE and small bowel barium study (SBBS), respectively. An additional mucosal finding was demonstrated in one of the eight patients who underwent wireless capsule endoscopy, and one patient had a capsule removed by DBE that had become lodged because of an ileal stricture. One ileal perforation because of overtube balloon pressure occurred in 53 examinations of patients with Crohn's disease (1.9%).
DBE is useful to evaluate small bowel lesions in patients with Crohn's disease; however, special attention should be paid to mesenteric longitudinal ulcers during insertion and the overtube balloon should not be inflated if a clear intestinal view is not possible.
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ABSTRACT: There is little data on the role of balloon enteroscopy and small bowel strictures. We aim to characterize the diagnostic role of double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) in small bowel strictures and document the outcomes of dilatation. This is a retrospective review from a single tertiary referral centre DBE database from July 2004 to September 2012. All patients with suspected strictures in the small bowel undergoing DBE were included. The position of the small bowel strictures considered for dilatation was determined by diagnostic imaging, i.e. CT enterography, MR enterography or capsule endoscopy in the workup before DBE. Endpoints included stricture description, dilatation parameters and response to treatment. Main outcome measurements were the safety and efficacy of DBE and dilatation. From our DBE database of 594 patients, a total of 32 patients underwent 44 DBE procedures for suspected or known strictures. Stricture aetiology included Crohn's disease (CD), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), surgical, Beçhets disease and one unknown. A total of 17 patients did not undergo dilatation as the strictures were ulcerated, nonobstructing or of uncertain aetiology. From the total of 25 dilatations in 15 patients that were attempted, 8/15 (53%) patients had 1 dilatation, 5 patients had 2 dilatations, 1 had 3 dilatations and 1 had 4 dilatations. The mean dilatation diameter was 14 mm. Three patients underwent surgery post-dilatation (2 for perforation). Mean follow up was 16 months. DBE is a useful method in determining the need for dilatation by assessing for active ulceration. Dilatation is effective in the 10-18 mm range, however perforation does occur.Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 05/2014; 7(3):108-114.
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ABSTRACT: Conventional ileocolonoscopy and barium small bowel follow-through are useful techniques for assessing the extension and severity of disease in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). More recently, novel techniques to enable IBD diagnosis have been developed, such as capsule endoscopy (CE), balloon enteroscopy (BE), computed tomography enterography (CTE) and magnetic resonance enterography (MRE). The advantages of CE and BE are that they enable mucosal assessment directly whereas the usefulness of CTE/MRE is in its ability to enable detection of transmural inflammation, stenosis, and extraintestinal lesions including abscesses and fistulas. In ulcerative colitis (UC), colitis-associated dysplasia/cancer is one of the criticalcomplications in patients with chronic disease. Detection of colitis-associated cancer is difficult in cases with inflammation. Magnification colonoscopy has been used to detect dysplasia in patients with chronic UC. Furthermore, colon CE and endocytoscopy have also developed and these might be used for selected patients in the near future.Digestive Endoscopy 08/2013; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract resulting in inflammation, stricturing and fistulae secondary to transmural inflammation. Diagnosis relies on clinical history, abnormal laboratory parameters, characteristic radiologic and endoscopic changes within the gastrointestinal tract and most importantly a supportive histology. The article is intended mainly for the general gastroenterologist and for other interested physicians. Management of small bowel CD has been suboptimal and limited due to the inaccessibility of the small bowel. Enteroscopy has had a significant renaissance recently, thereby extending the reach of the endoscopist, aiding diagnosis and enabling therapeutic interventions in the small bowel. Radiologic imaging is used as the first line modality to visualise the small bowel. If the clinical suspicion is high, wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is used to rule out superficial and early disease, despite the above investigations being normal. This is followed by push enteroscopy or device assisted enteroscopy (DAE) as is appropriate. This approach has been found to be the most cost effective and least invasive. DAE includes balloon-assisted enteroscopy, [double balloon enteroscopy (DBE), single balloon enteroscopy (SBE) and more recently spiral enteroscopy (SE)]. This review is not going to cover the various other indications of enteroscopy, radiological small bowel investigations nor WCE and limited only to enteroscopy in small bowel Crohn's. These excluded topics already have comprehensive reviews. Evidence available from randomized controlled trials comparing the various modalities is limited and at best regarded as Grade C or D (based on expert opinion). The evidence suggests that all three DAE modalities have comparable insertion depths, diagnostic and therapeutic efficacies and complication rates, though most favour DBE due to higher rates of total enteroscopy. SE is quicker than DBE, but lower complete enteroscopy rates. SBE has quicker procedural times and is evolving but the least available DAE today. Larger prospective randomised controlled trial's in the future could help us understand some unanswered areas including the role of BAE in small bowel screening and comparative studies between the main types of enteroscopy in small bowel CD.World journal of gastrointestinal endoscopy. 10/2013; 5(10):476-486.