DNA microarray reveals novel genes induced by mechanical forces in fetal lung type II epithelial cells.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, Providence, RI 02905, USA.
Pediatric Research (Impact Factor: 2.84). 09/2006; 60(2):118-24. DOI: 10.1203/01.pdr.0000227479.73003.b5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mechanical forces are essential for normal fetal lung development. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating this process are still poorly defined. In this study, we used oligonucleotide microarrays to investigate gene expression in cultured embryonic d 19 rat fetal lung type II epithelial cells exposed to a level of mechanical strain similar to the developing lung. Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) identified 92 genes differentially expressed by strain. Interestingly, several members of the solute carrier family of amino acid transporter (Slc7a1, Slc7a3, Slc6a9, and tumor-associated protein 1) genes involved in amino acid synthesis (Phgdh, Psat1, Psph, Cars, and Asns), as well as the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel gene (Scnn1a) were up-regulated by the application of force. These results were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Thus, this study identifies genes induced by strain that may be important for amino acid signaling pathways and protein synthesis in fetal type II cells. In addition, these data suggest that mechanical forces may contribute to facilitate lung fluid reabsorption in preparation for birth. Taken together, the present investigation provides further insights into how mechanical forces may modulate fetal lung development.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT During fetal development physiological stretching helps drive lung growth and maturation. At birth, the α-subunit of the alveolar epithelial sodium channel (α-ENaC) is a critical factor in helping to facilitate clearance of lung fluid during the perinatal period. The effects of stretch, however, on α-ENaC expression in the fetal lung have yet to be elucidated. In an effort to explore this question, we used both an in vitro cell culture model that exposes cells to repetitive cyclic stretch (CS) as well as an in vivo preterm animal model of mechanical ventilation (MV). We found that murine lung epithelial (MLE-12) cells exposed to repetitive CS showed a significant rise in α-ENaC mRNA expression. Total and cell-surface protein abundance of α-ENaC were also elevated after 24 h of CS. Stretch-induced increases in α-ENaC expression were suppressed in the presence of either actinomycin D or cycloheximide. Pharmacological inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) did not attenuate stretch-induced increases in α-ENaC protein, whereas inhibition of p38 MAPK or c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) did. In 29-day preterm rabbits, alveolar stretching secondary to postnatal MV markedly elevated fetal lung α-ENaC expression compared to spontaneously breathing counterparts. In summary, our findings indicate that mechanical stretch promotes α-ENaC expression.
    Experimental Lung Research 07/2014; · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Respiratory tract specific cell populations, or tissue engineered in vitro grown human lung, have the potential to be used as research tools to mimic physiology, toxicology, pathology, as well as infectious diseases responses of cells or tissues. Studies related to respiratory tract pathogenesis or drug toxicity testing in the past made use of basic systems where single cell populations were exposed to test agents followed by evaluations of simple cellular responses. Although these simple single-cell-type systems provided good basic information related to cellular responses, much more can be learned from cells grown in fabricated microenvironments which mimic in vivo conditions in specialized microfabricated chambers or by human tissue engineered three-dimensional (3D) models which allow for more natural interactions between cells. Recent advances in microengineering technology, microfluidics, and tissue engineering have provided a new approach to the development of 2D and 3D cell culture models which enable production of more robust human in vitro respiratory tract models. Complex models containing multiple cell phenotypes also provide a more reasonable approximation of what occurs in vivo without the confounding elements in the dynamic in vivo environment. The goal of engineering good 3D human models is the formation of physiologically functional respiratory tissue surrogates which can be used as pathogenesis models or in the case of 2D screening systems for drug therapy evaluation as well as human toxicity testing. We hope that this manuscript will serve as a guide for development of future respiratory tract model systems as well as a review of conventional models.
    Experimental Biology and Medicine 06/2014; · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies concerning the impact that hepatic, renal and intestinal transporters have on drug disposition have been frequently reported in the literature. Surprisingly, however, little is known regarding the distribution and function of drug-transporter proteins of the lung epithelium. Many drugs (delivered to the lung) have a net positive charge and, thus, are potential substrates of organic cation transporters; currently marketed compounds (e.g., bronchodilators), as well as novel drug candidates in development, are such substrates. It is the aim of this review to summarize the current state of organic cation-transporter expression analysis in the lung and in in vitro models of bronchial and alveolar barriers. Moreover, activity of selected transporters in lung epithelium in situ and in vitro will be highlighted, and their potential role in pulmonary drug disposition will be addressed. One example included here is the transporter-dependent absorption of beta2-agonists in respiratory epithelial cells.
    Therapeutic delivery 06/2012; 3(6):735-47.


1 Download
Available from