Article

The role of pathology in the identification of drug-induced hepatic toxicity.

North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA.
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism &amp Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.93). 05/2006; 2(2):241-7. DOI: 10.1517/17425255.2.2.241
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pathologists play a central role in the recognition and prevention of drug-induced toxicity. Pathologists engaged in clinical practice must identify a pattern of histological lesions that are interpreted in concert with a variety of clinical data to determine the probability of drug-induced toxicity versus background disease processes and the most likely drug, often of many, to have caused the specific injury. Toxicological pathologists, working in concert with other scientists, have the responsibility of preventing drug-induced toxicity in humans by identifying potentially toxic drugs and keeping them from the marketplace. In this process of drug development, a broad array of in vivo testing using a number of animal species and in vitro assays are used. Technological advances require pathologists to integrate molecular-based mechanistic data effectively with traditional morphological evaluation to develop a more detailed grasp of the pathogenesis of drug-induced injury. All pathologists have the responsibility to effectively and accurately communicate their findings and interpretations to the appropriate audiences.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
60 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Toxicologic pathologists contribute significantly to the development of new biopharmaceuticals, yet there is often a lack of awareness of this specialized role. As the members of multidisciplinary teams, toxicologic pathologists participate in all aspects of the drug development process. This review is part of an initiative by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology to educate scientists about toxicologic pathology and to attract junior scientists, veterinary students, and veterinarians into the field. We describe the role of toxicologic pathologists in identifying candidate agents, elucidating bioactive pathways, and evaluating efficacy and toxicity in preclinical animal models. Educational and specialized training requirements and the challenges of working in a global environment are discussed. The biopharmaceutical industry provides diverse, challenging, and rewarding career opportunities in toxicologic pathology. We hope that this review promotes understanding of the important role the toxicologic pathologist plays in drug development and encourages exploration of an important career option.
    International Journal of Toxicology 08/2011; 30(5):568-82. · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Retrospective studies indicate that many drugs that cause clinical adverse reactions, such as hepatotoxicity, undergo metabolic bioactivation, resulting in the formation of electrophilic intermediates capable of covalently modifying biological macromolecules. A logical extension of these findings is a working hypothesis that compounds with reduced levels of bioactivation should be inherently safer drug molecules and thus have a greater likelihood of success in drug development. Whereas some research-based pharmaceutical companies have adopted a strategy of addressing metabolic bioactivation early in drug discovery, much skepticism remains on whether such an approach would enable the industry to reach the desired objectives. The debate is centered on the question of whether there is a quantitative correlation between bioactivation and the severity of drug-treatment-related toxicity, and whether covalent protein modification represents only one of several possible mechanisms underlying observed tissue injury. This communication is intended to briefly review the current understanding of drug-induced hepatotoxicity and to discuss the controversy and future directions with respect to the effort of minimizing the probability of clinical adverse reactions.
    Drug Metabolism Reviews 11/2009; 42(2):225-49. · 5.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death around the world. Tumor-targeted drug delivery is one of the major areas in cancer research. Aptamers exhibit many desirable properties for tumor-targeted drug delivery, such as ease of selection and synthesis, high binding affinity and specificity, low immunogenicity, and versatile synthetic accessibility. Over the last several years, aptamers have quickly become a new class of targeting ligands for drug delivery applications. In this review, we will discuss in detail about aptamer-based delivery of chemotherapy drugs (e.g. doxorubicin, docetaxel, daunorubicin, and cisplatin), toxins (e.g. gelonin and various photodynamic therapy agents), and a variety of small interfering RNAs. Although the results are promising which warrants enthusiasm for aptamer-based drug delivery, tumor homing of aptamer-based conjugates after systemic injection has only been achieved in one report. Much remains to be done before aptamer-based drug delivery can reach clinical trials and eventually the day-to-day management of cancer patients. Therefore, future directions and challenges in aptamer-based drug delivery are also discussed.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 08/2011; 18(27):4185-94. · 3.72 Impact Factor