Expression of cadherins and catenins correlates with distinct histologic types of ovarian carcinomas.
ABSTRACT Alterations in the cadherin-catenin expression and activation of the Wnt signaling have been related to the pathology of ovarian carcinomas. Here, we evaluated the immunoreactivity of cadherins (E-, P-, and N-cadherin and cadherin-11) and catenins (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-catenin and p120) in 86 ovarian tumors. We found significant differences in the expression of all cadherins and catenins among the distinct histologic tumor types. Clear cell tumors were rarely N-cadherin- and P-cadherin-positive and showed reduced membranous expression in all the catenins; Serous carcinomas were frequently N-cadherin- and P-cadherin-positive, mucinous tumors strongly expressed E-cadherin and the catenins in the membrane, and endometrioid tumors characteristically expressed nucleocytoplasmic beta-catenin in most of the cases. We next studied whether allelic losses in the chromosomal regions containing various cadherin genes (16q22) or APC gene (5q21) occurred in ovarian tumors and observed a high frequency of loss of heterozygosity in 16q22 (78%) and 5q21 (33%) regions, but there were no differences among the tumor types analyzed. Finally, we also assessed the molecular alterations responsible for beta-catenin nuclear accumulation in endometrioid tumors by screening for mutations in AXIN1, AXIN2, APC, and KRAS genes. Mutations in KRAS were observed in 2 of 19 tumors, but no mutations were detected in AXIN1, AXIN2, or APC genes. Only beta-catenin gene mutations were associated with nuclear beta-catenin staining in these tumors. In conclusion, different cadherin-catenin expression patterns are associated with distinct histologic types. Oncogenic Wnt signaling plays a role only in endometrioid tumors, where beta-catenin mutations seem to be the main cause of its aberrant expression.
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ABSTRACT: Most collaborative studies for the treatment of primary and recurrent ovarian cancer have grouped all epithelial ovarian cancers together, leading to a common therapeutic approach to all the different subtypes. Emerging data, however, support the hypothesis that primary mucinous ovarian cancers are unique histologically, molecularly, and clinically from other epithelial subtypes. The objective of our review was to identify and synthesize the most current information on mucinous ovarian carcinoma with regard to pathologic, molecular, and clinical distinctions. We searched PubMed for English-language articles with the MeSH term "mucinous ovarian carcinoma" published between 1990 and 2009. On pathologic examination, primary invasive mucinous ovarian cancer often can be seen next to areas of benign and borderline mucinous histology, suggesting a continuum to malignant progression not observed in the other epithelial ovarian lesions. When compared to serous ovarian tumors, primary mucinous ovarian tumors have a significantly higher prevalence of KRAS mutations and a lower frequency of BRCA and p53 abnormalities. In addition, metastatic primary disease and recurrent mucinous cancers have a substantially worse prognosis than other epithelial ovarian cancers and are largely platinum and taxane resistant. Primary mucinous ovarian cancer should be considered separate from the other epithelial ovarian cancers. Ongoing clinical trials in this disease will likely offer improvements in chemotherapeutic agents used to treat women with primary and recurrent mucinous ovarian cancer.Gynecologic Oncology 03/2010; 117(3):491-6. · 3.89 Impact Factor
Article: Curcumin induces chemo/radio-sensitization in ovarian cancer cells and curcumin nanoparticles inhibit ovarian cancer cell growth.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chemo/radio-resistance is a major obstacle in treating advanced ovarian cancer. The efficacy of current treatments may be improved by increasing the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemo/radiation therapies. Curcumin is a naturally occurring compound with anti-cancer activity in multiple cancers; however, its chemo/radio-sensitizing potential is not well studied in ovarian cancer. Herein, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a curcumin pre-treatment strategy for chemo/radio-sensitizing cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. To improve the efficacy and specificity of curcumin induced chemo/radio sensitization, we developed a curcumin nanoparticle formulation conjugated with a monoclonal antibody specific for cancer cells. Cisplatin resistant A2780CP ovarian cancer cells were pre-treated with curcumin followed by exposure to cisplatin or radiation and the effect on cell growth was determined by MTS and colony formation assays. The effect of curcumin pre-treatment on the expression of apoptosis related proteins and beta-catenin was determined by Western blotting or Flow Cytometry. A luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the effect of curcumin on beta-catenin transcription activity. The poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (Nano-CUR) was developed by a modified nano-precipitation method and physico-chemical characterization was performed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering methods. Curcumin pre-treatment considerably reduced the dose of cisplatin and radiation required to inhibit the growth of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. During the 6 hr pre-treatment, curcumin down regulated the expression of Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 pro-survival proteins. Curcumin pre-treatment followed by exposure to low doses of cisplatin increased apoptosis as indicated by annexin V staining and cleavage of caspase 9 and PARP. Additionally, curcumin pre-treatment lowered beta-catenin expression and transcriptional activity. Nano-CUR was successfully generated and physico-chemical characterization of Nano-CUR indicated an average particle size of ~70 nm, steady and prolonged release of curcumin, antibody conjugation capability and effective inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth. Curcumin pre-treatment enhances chemo/radio-sensitization in A2780CP ovarian cancer cells through multiple molecular mechanisms. Therefore, curcumin pre-treatment may effectively improve ovarian cancer therapeutics. A targeted PLGA nanoparticle formulation of curcumin is feasible and may improve the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of curcumin.Journal of Ovarian Research 01/2010; 3:11. · 2.57 Impact Factor
Article: Changes in gene expression and cellular architecture in an ovarian cancer progression model.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Early stage disease often remains undetected due the lack of symptoms and reliable biomarkers. The identification of early genetic changes could provide insights into novel signaling pathways that may be exploited for early detection and treatment. Mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cells were used to identify stage-dependent changes in gene expression levels and signal transduction pathways by mouse whole genome microarray analyses and gene ontology. These cells have undergone spontaneous transformation in cell culture and transitioned from non-tumorigenic to intermediate and aggressive, malignant phenotypes. Significantly changed genes were overrepresented in a number of pathways, most notably the cytoskeleton functional category. Concurrent with gene expression changes, the cytoskeletal architecture became progressively disorganized, resulting in aberrant expression or subcellular distribution of key cytoskeletal regulatory proteins (focal adhesion kinase, α-actinin, and vinculin). The cytoskeletal disorganization was accompanied by altered patterns of serine and tyrosine phosphorylation as well as changed expression and subcellular localization of integral signaling intermediates APC and PKCβII. Our studies have identified genes that are aberrantly expressed during MOSE cell neoplastic progression. We show that early stage dysregulation of actin microfilaments is followed by progressive disorganization of microtubules and intermediate filaments at later stages. These stage-specific, step-wise changes provide further insights into the time and spatial sequence of events that lead to the fully transformed state since these changes are also observed in aggressive human ovarian cancer cell lines independent of their histological type. Moreover, our studies support a link between aberrant cytoskeleton organization and regulation of important downstream signaling events that may be involved in cancer progression. Thus, our MOSE-derived cell model represents a unique model for in depth mechanistic studies of ovarian cancer progression.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(3):e17676. · 4.09 Impact Factor