A genetically modified mouse model probing the selective action of ifenprodil at the N-methyl-D-aspartate type 2B receptor.
ABSTRACT Selective antagonism of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) 2B subunit containing receptors has been suggested to have potential therapeutic application for multiple CNS disorders. The amino terminal NR2B residues 1 to 282 were found to be both necessary and sufficient for the binding and function of highly NR2B subunit specific antagonists like ifenprodil and CP-101,606. Using a genetic approach in mice, we successfully replaced the murine NR2B gene function by "knocking-in" (KI) a chimeric human NR2A/B cDNA containing the minimal domain abolishing ifenprodil binding into the endogenous NR2B locus. Patch-clamp recording from hippocampal cultures of the NR2B KI mice demonstrated that their NMDA receptors have reduced sensitivity to both ifenprodil and CP-101,606, as predicted, but also have a lower affinity for glycine. The NR2B KI mice exhibited normal locomotor activity making this ifenprodil-insensitive mouse model a valuable tool to test the specificity of NR2B selective antagonists in vivo.
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ABSTRACT: We describe the synthesis and pharmacological characterization of a first generation of ifenprodil conjugates 4-7 as fluorescent probes for the confocal microscopy imaging of the NR2B-containing NMDA receptor. The fluorescein conjugate 6 displayed a moderate affinity for NMDAR but a high selectivity for the NR2B subunit and its NTD. Fluorescence imaging of DS-red labeled cortical neurons showed an exact colocalization of the probe 6 with small protrusions along the dendrites related to a specific binding on NR2B-containing NMDARs.Bioconjugate Chemistry 12/2011; 23(1):21-6. · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors are involved in many important physiological functions and play a pivotal role in mediating pain as well as in several neurodegenerative disorders. We aimed to develop fluorescent probes to target the GluN2B subunit selectively in order to allow better understanding of the relationships between receptor localisation and physiological importance. Ifenprodil, known as the GluNR2B antagonist of reference, was chosen as the template for the elaboration of probes. We had previously reported a fluorescein conjugate that was shown (by confocal microscopy imaging of DS-red-labelled cortical neurons) to bind specifically to GluN2B. To elaborate this probe, we explored the influence of both the nature and the attachment point of the spacer between the fluorophore and the parent compound, ifenprodil. We performed chemical modifications of ifenprodil at the benzylic position and on the phenol ring by introducing secondary amine or amide functions and evaluated alkyl chains from two to 20 bonds either including or not including secondary amide functions as spacers. The previously developed probe was found to display the greatest activity in the inhibition of NMDA-induced Ca(2+) influx by calcium imaging experiments on HEK293 cells transfected with the cDNA encoding for GluN1-1A and GluN2B. Further investigations revealed that this probe had a neuroprotective effect equivalent to that of ifenprodil in a standard test for neurotoxicity. Despite effects of lesser amplitude with these probes relative to ifenprodil, we demonstrated that they displaced [(3) H]ifenprodil in mouse brain slices in a similar manner.ChemBioChem 03/2013; 14(6). · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The numbers and types of ionotropic glutamate receptors at most vertebrate central excitatory synapses are altered as a function of changes in input activity patterns that occur during postnatal development. Activity-dependent developmental alterations in glutamate receptors underlie lasting changes in synaptic efficacy (plasticity) and metaplasticity (the plasticity of synaptic plasticity), which are critical elements of normal brain maturation. Understanding the specific involvement of glutamate receptors in synaptic development and function is made multiplicatively complex by the existence of a large number of glutamate receptor subunits, numerous subunit-specific amino acid sequences that regulate receptor function, and subunit-specific synaptic insertion restrictions imposed by associated anchoring proteins. Many receptor properties are altered when subunits are switched, so it is unclear which individual receptor property or properties underlie changes in synaptic function and plasticity during postnatal development. As a result, a more detailed understanding of the factors that regulate synaptic and cognitive development will involve mutations in glutamate receptor subunits that separate individual receptor properties and permit synaptic insertion at both immature and mature synapses in genetically modified organisms. This position paper focuses on structural modifications in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) that occur during postnatal forebrain development and attempts to provide a method for pursuing a more complete understanding of the functional ramifications of developmental alterations in NMDAR subunit composition.Biological Bulletin 02/2013; 224(1):1-13. · 1.57 Impact Factor