The use of IV fat in neonates.

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Stanford University Medical Center, 750 Welch Road, Suite 116, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA.
Nutrition in Clinical Practice (Impact Factor: 1.58). 08/2006; 21(4):374-80. DOI: 10.1177/0115426506021004374
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT IV fat emulsion (IVFE) is an integral part of the parenteral nutrition (PN) regimen in neonates. It provides a concentrated isotonic source of calories and prevents or reverses essential fatty acid deficiency. Continuous administration of IV fat with PN regimens prolongs the viability of peripheral IV lines in infants who might have limited venous access. IVFE must be administered separately from the PN solution in neonates. The acidic pH of a PN solution is necessary for maximum solubility of calcium and phosphorus. If fat emulsion is added to the PN solution, as is done in 3-in-1 (total nutrient admixture) solutions, the high amount of calcium and phosphorus needed by these infants may result in an unseen precipitate with serious consequences. Continuous fat infusion over 24 hours is the preferred method in neonates. The administration rate of 0.15 g/kg/hour for IVFE in the neonate should not be exceeded. Essential fatty acid deficiency can be prevented in neonates by providing IVFE in a dose of 0.5-1.0 g/kg/day. Carnitine is not routinely required to metabolize IVFE in the neonate. Infants should receive 20% lipid emulsion to improve clearance of triglycerides and cholesterol. Serum triglyceride levels should be maintained at <150-200 mg/dL in neonates. There are concerns about potential adverse effects of early administration of IV fat in very-low-birth-weight infants weighing <800 g. We hold the IV fat dose at 1.0-1.5 g/kg/day until the second week of life in infants <30 weeks gestation.

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    ABSTRACT: Intravenous lipid emulsion (IVLE) is an integral part of the total parenteral nutrition (TPN) regimen in neonates. The use of IVLE during sepsis is the subject of controversy because it may interfere with phagocytosis of microbes by macrophages and may lead to significant hypertriglyceridemia. This paper aims to study the rate of clearance of bacteria in relation to dose of IVLE administered to preterm infants with blood stream infections (BSIs). Preterm infants (mean gestational age ± SD, 32.0 ± 2.5 weeks) with culture-proven BSI and receiving TPN were randomized to two groups. The first group (n = 22) was given the usual dose of IVLE according to a standard protocol (starting from 0.5 g kg(-1) day(-1) and gradually increased by 1 g kg(-1) day(-1) to a maximum of 3.5 g kg(-1) day(-1)); in the second group (n = 20), IVLE were restricted at a dose of 1 g kg(-1) day(-1). Samples for blood cultures were withdrawn every 24 h until a negative culture was obtained. CRP was measured daily until its normalization. Serum triglycerides were monitored daily. The rate of bacterial clearance was significantly more rapid in the restricted-dose IVLE group compared to the standard-dose group [72 (48-120) versus 144 (72-168) h, p = 0.001]. Daily weight increment was significantly greater in the standard-dose IVLE group compared to the restricted-dose IVLE group [25 (6.9-31.9) versus 0.9 (-3.3-11.7) g, p = 0.0001]. The duration of antibiotic use was significantly reduced in the restricted-dose IVLE group compared with the standard-dose IVLE group (10.0 ± 4.5 vs 14.9 ± 5.1 days; p = 0.003). The durations of TPN, mechanical ventilation, and hospitalization were not significantly different between groups. Restriction of the dose of IVLE to 1 g kg(-1) day(-1) in preterm infants with BSI is associated with earlier negative blood cultures and reduced duration of antibiotic therapy but was associated with a lower daily weight increments.
    European Journal of Pediatrics 11/2011; 171(5):811-6. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For premature neonates needing parenteral nutrition (PN), a balanced lipid supply is crucial. The authors hypothesized that a lipid emulsion containing medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) and soybean, olive, and fish oils would be as safe and well tolerated as a soybean emulsion while beneficially influencing the fatty acid profile. Double-blind, controlled study in 53 neonates (<34 weeks' gestation) randomized to receive at least 7 days of PN containing either an emulsion of MCTs and soybean, olive, and fish oils or a soybean oil emulsion. Target lipid dosage was 1.0 g fat/kg body weight [BW]/d on days 1-3, 2 g/kg BW/d on day 4, 3 g/kg BW/d on day 5, and 3.5 g/kg BW/d on days 6-14. Test emulsion vs control, mean ± SD: baseline triglyceride concentrations were 0.52 ± 0.16 vs 0.54 ± 0.19 mmol/L and increased similarly in both groups to 0.69 ± 0.38 vs 0.67 ± 0.36 on day 8 of treatment (P = .781 for change). A significantly higher decrease in total and direct bilirubin vs baseline was seen in the test group compared with the control group P < .05 between groups). In plasma and red blood cell phospholipids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were higher, and the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio was lower in the test group (P < .05 vs control). The lipid emulsion, based on a mixture of MCTs and soybean, olive, and fish oils, was safe and well tolerated by preterm infants while beneficially modulating the fatty acid profile.
    Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 01/2012; 36(1 Suppl):81S-94S. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether an extended infusion time (24 hours) of intravenous fat emulsion is associated with an increase in microbial growth, versus a shorter infusion time (12 hours). Samples were collected from intravenous fat emulsions (n=132), from intravenous fat emulsions prepared in the current 24-hour infusion method (n=55), and from intravenous fat emulsions prepared in the twice-daily (12-hour infusion) method (n=55). In addition, samples were collected from pharmacy (n=22) to test for possible contamination. No growth was observed in either arm of the study. Current Kern Medical Center policy of preparation and administration of neonatal intensive care unit intravenous fat emulsion is safe and effective in regard to microbial growth.
    The journal of pediatric pharmacology and therapeutics : JPPT : the official journal of PPAG. 10/2013; 18(4):298-302.