Neurofibromatosis-associated lung disease: a case series and literature review

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States
European Respiratory Journal (Impact Factor: 7.13). 02/2007; 29(1):210-4. DOI: 10.1183/09031936.06.00044006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An association of neurofibromatosis with diffuse lung disease (NF-DLD) has been described, but its true prevalence and characteristics remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to define diffuse lung disease in patients with neurofibromatosis. A retrospective case series and literature review in a tertiary care academic medical centre is reported in which medical records, chest radiographs and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans were reviewed. A total of 55 adult patients with neurofibromatosis were identified, three of whom had NF-DLD. A literature review revealed 16 articles reporting 61 additional cases, yielding a total of 64 NF-DLD cases. The mean age of patients was 50 yrs. Males outnumbered females; most reported dyspnoea. Of the 16 subjects with documented smoking histories, 12 were ever-smokers. Eight patients had HRCT scan results demonstrating ground-glass opacities (37%), bibasilar reticular opacities (50%), bullae (50%), cysts (25%) and emphysema (25%); none had honeycombing. A group of 14 patients had surgical biopsy results that showed findings of interstitial fibrosis (100%) and interstitial inflammation (93%). In conclusion, neurofibromatosis with diffuse lung disease is a definable clinical entity, characterised by upper lobe cystic and bullous disease and lower lobe fibrosis. Its relationship to smoking remains unclear.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Once cystic lung disease is confirmed on computed tomography, one can arrive at the likely diagnosis in most cases by taking a systematic, stepwise approach based on the clinical and radiographic features. Here, we describe the features of cystic lung disease that point to lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, pulmonary angerhans cell histiocytosis, interstitial pneumonia, congenital cystic lung disease, pulmonary infection, and systemic disease. Copyright © 2015 Cleveland Clinic.
    Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 02/2015; 82(2):115-127. DOI:10.3949/ccjm.82a.14020 · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of pulmonary fibrosis in numerous individuals from the same family suggests a genetic cause for the disease. During the last 10 years, mutations involving proteins from the telomerase complex and from the surfactant system have been identified in association with pulmonary fibrosis. Mutations of TERT, the coding gene for the telomerase reverse transcriptase, are the most frequently identified mutations and are present in 15% of cases of familial pulmonary fibrosis. Other mutations (TERC, surfactant proteins genes) are only rarely evidenced in adults. Patients with mutations involving the telomerase complex may present with pulmonary fibrosis, hematologic, cutaneous or liver diseases. Other genetic variations associated with pulmonary fibrosis such as a polymorphism in the promoter of MUC5B or a polymorphism in TERT have been recently described, and could be considered to be part of a polygenic transmission. Evidence for mutations associated with the development of pulmonary fibrosis raises numerous clinical questions from establishing a diagnosis, providing counselling to deciding on therapy, and requires specific studies. From a pathophysiological point of view, the function of the genes highlights the central role of alveolar epithelium and aging in fibrogenesis.
    Revue des Maladies Respiratoires 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.rmr.2014.07.017 · 0.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1) is a hereditary disease inherited as an autosomal dominant. Respiratory involvement is rare. We report the case of a woman suffering from NF1 with mutation of the corresponding gene and with respiratory involvement combining diffuse parenchymatous lesions, severe precapillary pulmonary hypertension and an enlarging, spiculated pulmonary nodule, very suspicious of malignancy, though histological examination was not possible on account of the patient's poor respiratory function. There was progressive deterioration of the patient's respiratory condition, leading to death, despite the introduction of oral therapy combining a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor and an endothelin receptor antagonist. Our case illustrates the development of multiple severe respiratory pathologies in the setting of NF1. The specific contribution of the NF1 gene mutation in the pathophysiology of these different pulmonary manifestations needs to be examined in detail.
    Revue des Maladies Respiratoires 09/2014; 31(7):621–623. DOI:10.1016/j.rmr.2013.10.643 · 0.49 Impact Factor