Pediatric neurosurgical injuries associated with all-terrain vehicle accidents: a 10-year experience at St. Louis Children's Hospital.
ABSTRACT All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) have been characterized as inherently unstable and are associated with significant pediatric injuries in the US. The authors performed a study to analyze data obtained in pediatric patients who had sustained neurological injuries in ATV-related accidents, identify potential risk factors, and propose preventive measures. The study is based on a 10-year experience at the St. Louis Children's Hospital.
The authors retrospectively analyzed data obtained in all patients admitted to the St. Louis Children's Hospital between 1993 and 2003, limiting their focus to pediatric cases involving ATV-related accidents. A total of 185 patients were admitted with these criteria. Sixty-two patients (33.5%) suffered neurological injuries; there were 42 male and 20 female patients whose age ranged from 2 to 17 years. The most common injuries included skull fracture (37 cases) and closed head injury (30 cases). There were 39 cases of intracranial hemorrhage and 11 of spinal fracture. A total of 15 types of neurosurgical procedure were performed: six craniotomies for hematoma drainage, five craniotomies for elevation of depressed fractures, two procedures to allow placement of an intracranial pressure monitor, one to allow placement of an external ventricular drain, and one to allow the insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Two patients had sustained spinal cord injury, and three procedures were performed for spinal decompression or stabilization. The duration of hospital stay ranged from 1 to 143 days (mean 6.6 days). Fifty-seven patients (30.8%) were eventually discharged from the hospital, three (1.6%) were transferred to another hospital, two (1.1%) died, and 123 (66.4%) required in-patient rehabilitation.
Children suffered significant injuries due to ATV accidents. In passengers there was a statistically significant increased risk of neurological injury. The relative risk of neurological injury in patients not wearing helmets was higher than that in those who wore helmets, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Further efforts must be made to improve the proper operation and safety of ATVs, both through the education of parents and children and through the creation of legislation requiring stricter laws concerning ATV use.
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ABSTRACT: Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) in the pediatric population is relatively rare but carries significant psychological and physiological consequences. An interdisciplinary group of experts composed of medical and surgical specialists treating patients with SCI formulated the following questions: 1) What is the epidemiology of pediatric spinal cord injury and fractures?; 2) Are there unique features of pediatric SCI which distinguish the pediatric SCI population from adult SCI?; 3) Is there evidence to support the use of neuroprotective approaches, including hypothermia and steroids, in the treatment of pediatric SCI? A systematic review of the literature using multiple databases was undertaken to evaluate these three specific questions. A search strategy composed of specific search terms (Spinal Cord Injury, Paraplegia, Quadriplegia, tetraplegia, lapbelt injuries, seatbelt injuries, cervical spine injuries and Pediatrics) returned over 220 abstracts that were evaluated and by two observers. Relevant abstracts were then evaluated and papers were graded using the Downs and Black method. A table of evidence was then presented to a panel of experts using a modified Delphi approach and the following recommendation was then formulated using a consensus approach: Pediatric patients with traumatic SCI have different mechanisms of injury and have a better neurological recovery potential when compared to adults. Patients with SCI before their adolescent growth spurt have a high likelihood of developing scoliosis. Because of these differences, traumatic SCI should be highly suspected in the presence of abnormal neck or neurological exam, a high-risk mechanism of injury or a distracting injury even in the absence of radiological anomaly.Journal of neurotrauma 06/2011; 28(8):1515-24. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To define the epidemiological and injury profile of patients severely injured due to all-terrain vehicle accidents admitted to the Trauma ICU of a tertiary hospital. Methods Descriptive observational study including all patients admitted to our ICU who suffered an all-terrain vehicle accident in the last three years, included prospectively in our data base. We recorded demographic variables, clinical condition at admission, outcome, injury pattern, severity scores and survival probability by TRISS. Results Between 2004 and 2006 twelve patients who suffered an all-terrain vehicle accident were admitted. All of them were male and had a median age of 28.5 years (18-37.75). The median ISS was 25 points (17-27). Cranium and brain (AIS region 1) were present in 75% of the patients, face (AIS 2) in 41.6%, upper limbs (AIS 7) in 33%, thorax (AIS 4) in 25%, spine (AIS 6) and lower limbs (AIS 8) in 16.7% and there were no injures in AIS region 3 (neck) and 5 (abdomen-pelvis). Mortality at ICU and at day 28 was 16.7% and hospital mortality was 25%. Median ICU stay was 8 days (1.75-17) and median hospital stay was 21.5 days (8.25-27). ICU stay was shorter in patients without traumatic brain injury (1 [1-1.5] vs 12 [5-23]; p < 0.05). Conclusions All-terrain vehicle use is a growing source of high morbidity and mortality accidents. Injury patterns associated to these accidents are described. Traumatic brain injuries are common and have a poorer prognosis. New epidemiological and clinical studies are needed for a better knowledge of the problem.Cirugía Española 06/2008; 83(6):320-324. · 0.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Injuries related to all-terrain vehicle (ATV) use by children have increased in recent years, and the pattern of these injuries is not well known among radiologists. Our purpose was to identify different radiologically diagnosed injuries in children suffering ATV-related trauma and determine associations among various injuries as well as between injuries and outcome. The study included 512 consecutive children suffering from ATV injuries treated at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. All imaging studies were reviewed and correlated with injury frequency and outcome using multivariate analysis. Head injuries occurred in 244 children (48%) and in five of six deaths. Calvarial skull fractures occurred in 104 children and were associated with brain, subdural and epidural injuries. Brain and orbit injuries were associated with long-term disability. A total of 227 extremity fractures were present in 172 children (34%). The femur was the most commonly fractured bone. Nine children had partial foot amputations. Multiorgan injuries occurred in nearly half of the 97 children with torso injuries. Determinants for long-term disability or death were head injuries (odds ratio 3.4) and extremity fractures (odds ratio 3.3). Head and extremity injuries are the two most common injuries in children suffering ATV injuries and are associated with long-term disability. ATV use by children is dangerous and is a significant threat to child safety.Pediatric Radiology 04/2009; 39(7):677-84. · 1.65 Impact Factor