Determination of exercise training heart rate in patients on beta-blockers after myocardial infarction.
ABSTRACT In patients with coronary artery disease, the target intensity-level of exercise training is usually based on a training heart rate that aims to be close to the upper level of metabolic aerobic exercise.
We intended to evaluate whether a training heart rate calculated with the Karvonen formula after a conventional exercise test is comparable with the heart rate at the anaerobic threshold in patients after myocardial infarction treated with beta-blockers and if not to propose a new formula.
In this multicenter prospective study, 115 consecutive beta-blocked patients recovering from myocardial infarction performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test to determine the anaerobic threshold. The training heart rate determined by the Karvonen formula was compared with the heart rate at the anaerobic threshold in a derivation sample (n=58) and a validation sample (n=57) of patients. The Karvonen training heart rate was significantly lower than the heart rate at the anaerobic threshold (91+/-5 versus 102+/-17 bpm, P<0.0001) in the first sample of patients and this difference was clinically relevant in 40% of patients. Thus, a 'modified Karvonen training heart rate', equal to 0.8xx(maximum heart rate-resting heart rate)+resting heart rate, was calculated by linear regression in the derivation sample and prospectively assessed in the validation sample. The modified Karvonen training heart rate was closer to the heart rate at the anaerobic threshold than the Karvonen training heart rate, and the difference between the modified Karvonen training heart rate and the heart rate at the anaerobic threshold was clinically relevant in only 5% of patients.
The Karvonen formula underestimates the heart rate at the anaerobic threshold in beta-blocked patients, which may lead to undertraining of patients with coronary artery disease; we propose another formula more adapted to these patients.
Article: Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors: recommendations from the EACPR (Part II).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In a previous paper, as the first of a series of three on the importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity (PA) and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health within the general population, we concluded that, in the population at large, PA and aerobic exercise capacity clearly are inversely associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and that a dose-response curve on cardiovascular outcome has been demonstrated in most studies. More and more evidence is accumulated that engaging in regular PA and exercise interventions are essential components for reducing the severity of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity and abdominal fat, high BP, metabolic risk factors, and systemic inflammation. However, it is less clear whether and which type of PA and exercise intervention (aerobic exercise, dynamic resistive exercise, or both) or characteristic of exercise (frequency, intensity, time or duration, and volume) would yield more benefit for each separate risk factor. The present paper, therefore, will review and make recommendations for PA and exercise training in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. The guidance offered in this series of papers is aimed at medical doctors, health practitioners, kinesiologists, physiotherapists and exercise physiologists, politicians, public health policy makers, and individual members of the public. Based on previous and the current literature overviews, recommendations from the European Association on Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation are formulated regarding type, volume, and intensity of PA and regarding appropriate risk evaluation during exercise in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors.European journal of preventive cardiology. 05/2012;