Intramembrane proteolytic cleavage by human signal peptide peptidase like 3 and malaria signal peptide peptidase.
ABSTRACT Signal peptide peptidase (SPP) is an intramembrane cleaving protease (I-CLiP) identified by its cleavage of several type II membrane signal peptides. To date, only human SPP has been directly shown to have proteolytic activity. Here we demonstrate that the most closely related human homologue of SPP, signal peptide peptidase like 3 (SPPL3), cleaves a SPP substrate, but a more distantly related homologue, signal peptide peptidase like 2b (SPPL2b), does not. These data provide strong evidence that the SPP and SPPL3 have conserved active sites and suggest that the active sites SPPL2b is distinct. We have also synthesized a cDNA designed to express the single SPP gene present in Plasmodium falciparum and cloned this into a mammalian expression vector. When the malaria SPP protein is expressed in mammalian cells it cleaves a SPP substrate. Notably, several human SPP inhibitors block the proteolytic activity of malarial SPP (mSPP). Studies from several model organisms that express multiple SPP homologs demonstrate that the silencing of a single SPP homologue is lethal. Based on these data, we hypothesize that mSPP is a potential a novel therapeutic target for malaria.
Article: Gamma-secretase represents a therapeutic target for the treatment of invasive glioma mediated by the p75 neurotrophin receptor.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The multifunctional signaling protein p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) is a central regulator and major contributor to the highly invasive nature of malignant gliomas. Here, we show that neurotrophin-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) of p75(NTR) is required for p75(NTR)-mediated glioma invasion, and identify a previously unnamed process for targeted glioma therapy. Expression of cleavage-resistant chimeras of p75(NTR) or treatment of animals bearing p75(NTR)-positive intracranial tumors with clinically applicable gamma-secretase inhibitors resulted in dramatically decreased glioma invasion and prolonged survival. Importantly, proteolytic processing of p75(NTR) was observed in p75(NTR)-positive patient tumor specimens and brain tumor initiating cells. This work highlights the importance of p75(NTR) as a therapeutic target, suggesting that gamma-secretase inhibitors may have direct clinical application for the treatment of malignant glioma.PLoS Biology 12/2008; 6(11):e289. · 11.45 Impact Factor
Article: A small molecule inhibitor of signal peptide peptidase inhibits Plasmodium development in the liver and decreases malaria severity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The liver stage of Plasmodium's life cycle is the first, obligatory step in malaria infection. Decreasing the hepatic burden of Plasmodium infection decreases the severity of disease and constitutes a promising strategy for malaria prophylaxis. The efficacy of the gamma-secretase and signal peptide peptidase inhibitor LY411,575 in targeting Plasmodium liver stages was evaluated both in human hepatoma cell lines and in mouse primary hepatocytes. LY411,575 was found to prevent Plasmodium's normal development in the liver, with an IC(50) of approximately 80 nM, without affecting hepatocyte invasion by the parasite. In vivo results with a rodent model of malaria showed that LY411,575 decreases the parasite load in the liver and increases by 55% the resistance of mice to cerebral malaria, one of the most severe malaria-associated syndromes. Our data show that LY411,575 does not exert its effect via the Notch signaling pathway suggesting that it may interfere with Plasmodium development through an inhibition of the parasite's signal peptide peptidase. We therefore propose that selective signal peptide peptidase inhibitors could be potentially used for preventive treatment of malaria in humans.PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(4):e5078. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Mouse Peroxisomal Protein cDNA Cloning and Characterization of its Intraclleular Localization