Article

Longitudinal study of new and prevalent use of self-monitoring of blood glucose.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, CA 94612, USA.
Diabetes Care (Impact Factor: 8.57). 08/2006; 29(8):1757-63. DOI: 10.2337/dc06-2073
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We sought to assess longitudinal association between self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and glycemic control in diabetic patients from an integrated health plan (Kaiser Permanente Northern California).
Longitudinal analyses of glycemic control among 1) 16,091 patients initiating SMBG (new-user cohort) and 2) 15,347 ongoing users of SMBG (prevalent-user cohort). SMBG frequency was based on pharmacy use (number of blood glucose test strips dispensed), and glycemic control was based on HbA(1c) (A1C). In the new-user cohort, ANCOVA models (pre- and posttest design) were used to assess the effect of initiating SMBG. In the prevalent-user cohort, repeated-measure, mixed-effects models with random-intercept and time-dependent covariates were used to assess changes in SMBG and A1C. All models were stratified by therapy (no medications, oral agents only, or insulin) and adjusted for baseline A1C, sociodemographics, insulin injection frequency, comorbidity index, medication adherence, smoking status, health care use, and provider specialty.
Greater SMBG practice frequency among new users was associated with a graded decrease in A1C (relative to nonusers) regardless of diabetes therapy (P < 0.0001). Changes in SMBG frequency among prevalent users were associated with an inverse graded change in A1C only among pharmacologically treated patients (P < 0.0001).
These observational findings are consistent with short-term benefits of initiating SMBG practice for all patients but continuing benefits only for pharmacologically treated patients. Differences in effectiveness between new versus prevalent users of SMBG have implications for guideline development and interpretation of observational outcomes data.

1 Bookmark
 · 
124 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Online patient portals are being widely implemented, but their impact on health behaviors are not well-studied. To determine whether statin adherence improved after initiating use of the portal refill function. Observational cohort study within an integrated health care delivery system. Diabetic patients on statins who had registered for online portal access by 2010. A total of 8705 subjects initiated the online refill function use within the study window, including "exclusive" and "occasional" users (ie, requesting all vs. some refills online, respectively). Using risk-set sampling, we temporally matched 9055 reference group patients who never used online refills. We calculated statin adherence before and after refill function initiation, assessed as percent time without medications (nonadherence defined as a gap of >20%). Secondary outcome was dyslipidemia [low-density lipoprotein (LDL)≥100]. Difference-in-differences regression models estimated pre-post changes in nonadherence and dyslipidemia, comparing refill function users to the reference group and adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, medications, frequency of portal use, and outpatient visits. In unadjusted examinations, nonadherence decreased only among patients initiating occasional or exclusive use of the refill function (26%-24% and 22%-15%, respectively). In adjusted models, nonadherence declined by an absolute 6% (95% confidence interval, 4%-7%) among exclusive users, without significant changes among occasional users. Similar LDL decreases were also seen among exclusive users. Compared with portal users who did not refill medications online, adherence to statin medications and LDL levels improved among diabetic patients who initiated and exclusively used the patient portal for refills, suggesting that wider adoption of online refills may improve adherence.
    Medical care 12/2013; · 2.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical trials have shown that self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) combined with patient education and medication titration can lead to improved glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and reduced weight in recently diagnosed non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. This retrospective matched cohort study assessed the association of SMBG with achieving long-term clinical outcomes in these patients in a real-world clinical setting. Using electronic medical records (2008-2011), we selected a population of adult patients recently diagnosed with T2DM not receiving insulin who were SMBG users and a population of non-SMBG controls with similar demographic and clinical characteristics using propensity score matching. The main study outcomes compared between the two groups were time to achieve (1) HbA1c <7% for patients with baseline HbA1c ≥7% and (2) a ≥5% reduction in weight from baseline. Of the 589 patients identified in each group, 113 in each group had a baseline HbA1c ≥7% (mean, 8.2%). The SMBG users were more likely to achieve an HbA1c <7% (12 months: 58.4% versus 38.9%, p = .0037; 36 months: 84.0% versus 70.0%, p = .0013) and to do so faster (median, 6.5 versus 20.5 months; log-rank p = .0016). Self-monitoring of blood glucose was associated with faster weight reduction (median time to achieve a ≥5% reduction, 23.5 versus 35.9 months for SMBG and non-SMBG, respectively; log-rank p = .0005). In newly diagnosed T2DM insulin-naïve patients, SMBG users had an improved rate of achieving long-term glycemic control and weight loss in a real-world clinical setting.
    Journal of diabetes science and technology 01/2013; 7(5):1229-1242.
  • Canadian Journal of Diabetes 04/2013; 37:S35–S39. · 0.46 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
36 Downloads
Available from
May 22, 2014