, 536 (2006);
et al.Noelia V. Weisstaub,
Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Mice
Receptor Signaling Modulates2ACortical 5-HT
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cells were exposed to galactose (Fig. 3E).
Occupancy at these galactose-inducible genes
was dependent on gene activation because it
was not detected in strains lacking the tran-
scriptional activator Gal4p (Fig. 3E). These
results confirm that Tpk1p generally becomes
physically associated with actively transcribed
genes and that occupancy occurs throughout the
transcribed portions of these genes.
We then investigated whether Tpk2p occu-
pies specific portions of the genome. Tpk2p was
found almost exclusively associated with the
promoters of ribosomal protein genes (Fig. 3F,
did not correlate with transcription rates
throughout the genome, and Tpk2p remained
associated with its target genes when cells were
exposed to oxidative stress, which leads to re-
duced transcription of ribosomal protein genes
(Fig. 3F). We did not detect Tpk3p occupancy on
chromatin under the conditions used here (rich
media, oxidative stress, and pheromone ex-
posure). Although we have not shown that oc-
cupancy of genes by Tpk1p and Tpk2p regulates
gene expression, previous studies have shown
that PKA phosphorylates the Srb9 subunit of the
Mediator complex (19) and that PKA activity
regulates ribosomal gene expression (20–22).
The idea that some PKA family members might
operate, at least in part, through occupancy of
actively transcribed genes is attractive because it
might provide an efficient means for cells to
respond to the nutrient environment at the level
of gene expression.
Our finding that most activated MAPKs and
PKAs in yeast become associated with distinct
target genes changes our perception of the sites
at which signaling pathways act to regulate gene
expression. With the exception of Hog1p and
p38, studies of the effect of signal transduction
pathways on gene expression have not implied
that the activities of MAPKs or PKAs involve
genome occupancy. Although it is still possible
that the phosphorylation of transcriptional regu-
lators also occurs elsewhere in the cell, the
detection of kinases by ChIP-Chip analyses at
target genes suggests a model in which regula-
tion by signal transduction kinases often occurs
at the genes themselves. In this model, kinases
become physically localized at specific sites in
the genome by association with transcription
factors, chromatin regulators, the transcription
apparatus, nucleosomes, or nuclear pore proteins
that are associated with subsets of actively
transcribed genes (5–10, 19, 23–25) (fig. S4).
The kinases studied here associate with target
that there are different mechanisms involved in
their association with genes. Tpk2p was found
only at the promoter regions of its target genes.
Hog1p occupancy was greatest at the promoters
but also occurred to a limited extent within the
transcribed regions of genes. Fus3p, Kss1p, and
Tpk1p showed the greatest occupancy over the
transcribed regions of genes. ChIP-Chip experi-
and promoter-associated chromatin regulators
generally occupy the promoters of genes, whereas
transcription elongation factors, gene-associated
chromatin regulators, certain histone modifica-
S4). Preferential binding to these factors could
explain the localization of the kinases.
Many features of signal transduction pathways
are highly conserved in eukaryotes, so it is rea-
and muscle-creatine kinase (CKM) promoters
during human myogenesis (10). The observation
that components of many signal transduction
pathways physically occupy their target genes
upon activation should facilitate the mapping of
the regulatory circuitry that eukaryotic cells use
to modify gene expression in response to a broad
range of environmental cues.
References and Notes
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J. Biol. Chem. 279, 22010 (2004).
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EMBO J. 17, 5606 (1998).
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18, 405 (2002).
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16. C. J. Roberts et al., Science 287, 873 (2000).
17. S. K. Mahanty, Y. Wang, F. W. Farley, E. A. Elion, Cell 98,
18. L. Schneper, K. Duvel, J. R. Broach, Curr. Opin. Microbiol.
7, 624 (2004).
19. Y. W. Chang, S. C. Howard, P. K. Herman, Mol. Cell 15,
20. C. Klein, K. Struhl, Mol. Cell. Biol. 14, 1920 (1994).
21. D. E. Martin, A. Soulard, M. N. Hall, Cell 119, 969 (2004).
22. P. Jorgensen et al., Genes Dev. 18, 2491 (2004).
23. J. M. Casolari et al., Cell 117, 427 (2004).
24. J. M. Casolari, C. R. Brown, D. A. Drubin, O. J. Rando,
P. A. Silver, Genes Dev. 19, 1188 (2005).
25. M. Schmid et al., Mol. Cell 21, 379 (2006).
26. F. C. Holstege et al., Cell 95, 717 (1998).
27. D. K. Pokholok et al., Cell 122, 517 (2005).
28. The authors thank G. Fink, M. Guenther, C. Harbison,
T. Lee, and S. Levine for critical discussions and S. Levine
and E. Herbolsheimer for computational support. The
work was supported by NIH grants HG002668 and
GM069676. R.A.Y. consults for Agilent Technologies.
Supporting Online Material
Figs. S1 to S5
Tables S1 to S7
21 March 2006; accepted 24 May 2006
Cortical 5-HT2AReceptor Signaling
Behaviors in Mice
Noelia V. Weisstaub,1,3Mingming Zhou,2Alena Lira,2Evelyn Lambe,6* Javier Gonza ´lez-Maeso,7
Jean-Pierre Hornung,8Etienne Sibille,1† Mark Underwood,2Shigeyoshi Itohara,9
William T. Dauer,5Mark S. Ansorge,2,3Emanuela Morelli,2,3J. John Mann,2Miklos Toth,10
George Aghajanian,6Stuart C. Sealfon,7Rene ´ Hen,2,4Jay A. Gingrich2,3‡
Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] neurotransmission in the central nervous system modulates
depression and anxiety-related behaviors in humans and rodents, but the responsible downstream
receptors remain poorly understood. We demonstrate that global disruption of 5-HT2A receptor (5HT2AR)
signaling in mice reduces inhibition in conflict anxiety paradigms without affecting fear-conditioned and
depression-related behaviors. Selective restoration of 5HT2AR signaling to the cortex normalized conflict
anxiety behaviors.These findings indicate a specific role for cortical 5HT2AR function in the modulation of
conflict anxiety, consistent with models of cortical, ‘‘top-down’’ influences on risk assessment.
ronment (1–11). Despite the importance of
these observations, little is known about the
brain structures or the postsynaptic receptors
that mediate these effects of 5-HT.
he neurotransmitter serotonin modulates a
diverse array of functions related to
homeostasis and responses to the envi-
The cortex, ventral striatum, hippocampus,
and amygdala are highly enriched in 5HT2AR
expression. These structures and their connect-
ing circuits modulate the behavioral response to
novelty and threat—behaviors that are typically
thought to reflect the anxiety state of the
organism (12). Given the importance of 5-HT
28 JULY 2006VOL 313 SCIENCEwww.sciencemag.org
on January 29, 2008
in modulating anxiety states, we sought to de-
termine whether 5HT2AR signaling mediates
5-HT effects on anxiety-related behaviors. We
therefore generated genetically modified mice
with global disruption of 5HT2AR signaling
capacity (htr2aj/jmice; fig. S1).
We examined anxiety-related behaviors of
htr2aj/jmice in several paradigms. The open
field (OF) is an arena that presents a conflict
between innate drives to explore a novel envi-
ronment and safety. Under brightly lit conditions,
the center of the OF is aversive and potentially
risk-laden, whereas exploration of the periphery
provides a safer choice. We found that htr2aj/j
mice explored the center portion of the environ-
ment (as a percentage of total exploratory
activity) more than their intact htr2aþ/þlitter-
mates did (Fig. 1A; P G 0.01). The htr2aj/j
mice also exhibited more rearing—a maneuver
that raises the animal onto its hind limbs,
allowing greater visual perspective of the envi-
ronment but also exposing the animal to greater
risk (Fig. 1B; P G 0.05).
Weexamined thebehaviorof htr2aj/jmice
in three other conflict paradigms: the dark-light
choice test (DLC), the elevated plus-maze
(EPM), and the novelty-suppressed feeding
(NSF) paradigm. The DLC provides the chance
to explore an arena consisting of dark (safe)
and brightly lit (risky) areas. The total time of
exploratory activity did not differ between
genotypes (Fig. 1F); however, htr2aj/jmice
explored the lit compartment to a greater extent
than their htr2aþ/þlittermates, as measured by
the percentage of total exploratory time spent in
the light compartment (Fig. 1D; P G 0.05) and
the percentage of total time spent in the light
compartment (Fig. 1E; P G 0.01). The EPM has
two Brisk-laden[ arms (open without sidewalls)
and two Bsafe[ arms (closed by sidewalls). The
htr2aj/jmice explored the riskier portions of
the EPM to a greater extent than the htr2aþ/þ
mice, as measured by the percentage of entries
made into the open arms (Fig. 1G; P G 0.05)
and the percentage of time spent in the open
arms (Fig. 1H; P G 0.01). As in the other tests,
total locomotor activity was comparable be-
tween genotypes (Fig. 1I). We also examined
the effect of htr2aj/jmice in the NSF test,
which depends less on locomotor activity and is
driven by hunger rather than exploratory drive.
Consistent with other conflict tests, htr2aj/j
mice exhibited a shorter latency to begin feed-
ing in a novel environment (Fig. 1J) than the
htr2aþ/þmice (P G 0.05), with no differences
in feeding activity in the home cage (Fig. 1L)
or differences in weight loss (Fig. 1K).
In humans, anxiety and depression often
coexist, and altered serotonin signaling has been
implicated in the etiology of both disorders (13).
Therefore, we examined the role of reduced
5HT2AR signaling in depression-related behav-
iors, as measured by the forced swim test (FST)
and the tail suspension test (TST). These
paradigms reflect the behavioral response to
inescapable stress, not conflict, and are sensi-
tive to antidepressant but not anxiolytic treat-
ments (14, 15). In both tests, rodents usually
struggle to escape from these situations, inter-
spersed with periods of immobility thathas been
interpreted as Bbehavioral despair[ (16). When
we used these tests to assess htr2aj/jmice, we
found no difference in immobility when com-
pared to their htr2aþ/þlittermates in either test
1Department of Biology,2Department of Psychiatry,3Sackler
Institute Laboratories,4Center for Neurobiology and Behav-
ior,5Department of Neurology, Columbia University and the
New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY 10032,
USA.6Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven,
CT 06520, USA.
School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.8Institut de
Biologie Cellulaire et de Morphologie, Universite ´ de
Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.9Laboratory for Behavioral
Genetics, Riken Brain Science Institute, Wako City, Japan
10Department of Pharmacology, Cornell University Medical
Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.
7Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai
*Present address: Department of Physiology, University of
Toronto, Toronto ON, M5S1A8, Canada.
†Current address: Department of Psychiatry, University of
Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
‡To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:
Fig. 1. htr2aj/jmice show decreased inhibition in conflict anxiety
paradigms. (A to C) OF measures. (A) percentage of total locomotor activity
occurring in the center of the arena. (B) Rearing. (C) Total distance traveled in
the periphery and center. (D to F) DLC measures. (D) Percentage of total
exploratory time spent in the light compartment. (E) Percentage of total time
spent in the light compartment. (F) Total exploratory time (s). (G to I) EPM
measures. (G) Percentage of total entries made into the open arms. (H)
Percentage of time spent in the open arms. (I) Total number of entries into any
arm. (J to L) NSF measures. (J) Latency to approach the food pellet (s). (K)
Percentage of body weight lost after deprivation. (L) Amount of food consumed
in home cage during 5-min period. *P G 0.05; **P G 0.01. Mean T SEM, n 0
26 to 39 mice per group.
www.sciencemag.orgSCIENCE VOL 31328 JULY 2006
on January 29, 2008
(Fig. 2, A and B). These findings dissociated the
low-anxiety phenotype of htr2aj/jmice from
To assess the specificity of these findings, we
examined other parameters that might influence
their outcome. The effect of genotype on ex-
ploratory activity was specific to conflict tests
because home cage activity did not differ be-
tween genotypes. Motor coordination, strength,
and sensory processing were unimpaired. We
also assessed whether anxiety differences might
be due to abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-
adrenal function. Baseline concentrations of
plasma corticosterone were comparable in each
genotype. Likewise, following novel OF or FST
exposure, the rise in corticosterone release was
the content of bioamines and their metabolites in
several different brain regions to determine
whether the absence of 5HT2AR signaling may
are known to influence anxiety-related behav-
iors. We found no evidence of altered content or
turnover of these transmitters as a function of
genotype (fig. S5). We assessed the cortical
expression of 30 different neurotransmitter
receptors using quantitative real-time polymer-
ase chain reaction and found no differences
between htr2aþ/þand htr2aj/jmice (with the
exception of 5HT2AR expression; table S1).
Although we did not find differences at the
mRNA level, differences of receptor expression
or coupling might still exist in htr2aj/jmice.
Because the 5HT2Creceptor (5HT2CR) has
been implicated in anxiety (17), we quantified
the amount of agonist-coupled 5HT2CR in
htr2aþ/þand htr2aj/jmice using EI125^-DOI
autoradiography. No differences in the level of
expression of 5HT2CR were observed (fig. S3).
Finally, we also investigated the cellular
structure of the cortex, given the high level of
expression of 5HT2AR in this brain area. No
differences in cell number, mantle thickness,
barrel field formation, or the expression of
GABA (g-aminobutyric acid)–containing neu-
ronal markers were seen (fig. S4).
The relation between anxiety and fear is
complex because each construct depends on
partially overlapping circuitry. Acquisition of
fear conditioning requires functional integrity of
the hippocampus and the amygdala (18),
whereas conflict anxiety behaviors implicate
the hippocampus, amygdala, cortex, and peri-
aquaductal grey (PAG) (7, 19). To examine
whether impaired 5HT2AR signaling in the
hippocampus or amygdala disrupts fear-related
behaviors, we performed cued and contextual
fear-conditioning experiments using an aversive
foot-shock stimulus (unconditioned stimulus)
paired with a tone (conditioned stimulus).
Before the tone-shock pairing, fear-related
behavior (i.e., freezing) in the conditioning
context was comparable between genotypes
(Fig. 2C). After pairing of the conditioning
context with the foot shock, we observed
increased freezing in response to the context
alone with no differences between genotypes
(Fig. 2C). When presented with the conditioned
tone in an unfamiliar context, mice of both
genotypes (previously exposed to paired pre-
sentations of tone and foot shock) froze to a
greater extent during the tone presentation
than during the first minute spent in the new
environment (Fig. 2D) and more than control
mice previously exposed to unpaired presen-
tation of these stimuli.
The dissociation from learned fear in these
studies indicates that the low conflict anxiety
shown by htr2aj/jmice is not affected by
abnormal conditioned fear learning and conse-
quently does not result from altered 5HT2AR
signaling in the hippocampus or amygdala. If
this finding suggests that impaired 5HT2AR
signaling in PAG or cortex might underlie their
conflict anxiety phenotype. However, the PAG
acts to modulate Bescape[ or freezing behaviors
(20), which appear to be unaffected in htr2aj/j
mice. This led us to reason that reduced cortical
5HT2AR signaling may underlie our observed
phenotype. We thus attempted to rescue nor-
mal conflict behavior in htr2aj/jmice by se-
lective restoration of 5HT2AR function to the
To restore 5HT2AR signaling in the cortex,
we capitalized on the methodology used to create
our global knockout—namely, an insertion mu-
tation between the promoter and the coding
region that blocks transcription and translation
of the htr2a gene (Fig. 3A and fig. S1). Uni-
directional lox-P sites flank the insertion muta-
tion, and under the action of the bacteriophage
P1 recombinase, Cre, the inserted sequence can
be removed, thus restoring receptor expression
under the control of its endogenous promoter
The gene Emx1 is expressed in the fore-
brain during early brain maturation (21) and
has been used to drive Cre expression and con-
trol forebrain gene expression in other systems
(22). We crossed htr2aj/jmice with mice
expressing Emx1-Cre to selectively restore
5HT2AR expression to the forebrain while
leaving other sites of 5HT2AR expression
blocked (htr2aj/j? Emx1-Cre).
Receptor autoradiography was performed
using the agonist E125I^-DOI. In htr2aj/j?
Emx1-Cre mice, we observed that 5HT2AR
expression was restored principally in layer V of
the cortex and in a closely associated structure,
the claustrum (23). No measurable expression
was seen in the hippocampus, a structure
expressing Emx1. We found no significant
5HT2AR mRNA expression in the striatum of
htr2aj/j? Emx1-Cre mice as compared to
htr2aj/jmice (fig S6A). Likewise, the thalamus
and other subcortical structures that express
5HT2AR, but not Emx1, were devoid of ex-
pression (Fig. 3C).
To determine whether compensatory alter-
ations in 5HT2CR expression were present in
htr2aj/jmice or htr2aj/j? Emx1-Cre mice,
we assessed 5HT2CR mRNA expression (fig.
S6B). We found no evidence of 5HT2CR
alterations in htr2aj/j? Emx1-Cre mice.
To verify the functionality of the restored
cortical 5HT2AR, we assessed the electrophysio-
logical response of cortical slices to 5-HT. We
performed whole-cell recordings of layer V
pyramidal neurons in cortical slices from
htr2aþ/þ, htr2aj/j, and htr2aj/j? Emx1-Cre
mice. There were no significant differences
among these groups in resting potential, input
resistance, and spike amplitude. However, 5-HT
Fig. 2. Depression and
fear-related measures are
not affected in htr2aj/j
mice. (A) FST: Percentage
of time spent immobile
during the 4-min test. (B)
TST: Percentage of time
spent immobile during
the 7-min test. (C and D)
ing. (C) Mean percentage
of freezing in basal con-
dition measured during
the first 60 s in the first
day of exposure and
mean percentage of freez-
ing time during context
test. (D) Percentage of
freezing time in new con-
text without and during
the presence of the cue
test. Mean T SEM, n 0 12
to 40 mice per group for
28 JULY 2006VOL 313SCIENCEwww.sciencemag.org
on January 29, 2008
produced robust increases in spontaneous excit-
atory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in pyram-
idal neurons from htr2aþ/þand htr2aj/j?
Emx1-Cre mice, but not in htr2aj/jmice
(Fig. 3D; P G 0.0001). The selective 5HT2AR
antagonist, MDL 100907, blocked the 5-HT–
elicited increases in sEPSC frequency, but had
no effect in htr2aj/jmice. Norepinephrine
(NE) increased sEPSCs to an equal extent in all
Fig. 3. Cortical restora-
tion of 5HT2AR function
in htr2aj/jmice. (A to
C) Filled blue boxes rep-
resent exons of htr2a
gene. Narrow boxes la-
beled with phtr2a or
pEmx1 represent the en-
dogenous promoters for
each gene. Serpentine
gene product. (Left) (A)
Schematic of the wild-
type htr2a locus. (B) Lox-p
sette (red box) inserted
upstream from the first
initiation codon of the
htr2a gene blocks tran-
scription and translation.
(C) Expression of Cre un-
der the control of the
Emx1 promoter interacts
with the lox-p sequences
to remove the cassette
and restore expression of
htr2a gene. (Middle)
tion of the pattern of ex-
pression of 5HT2AR in
(B), and htr2aj/j?
Emx1-Cre (C) mice. Ab-
breviations: CTX, cor-
tex; T, thalamus; CA1,
CA1 region of hippo-
campus; PAG, peri-
aquaductal grey; CPu,
nucleus accumbens; BLA,
dala; AOM, anterior ol-
factory nucleus (medial);
EnC, entorhinal cortex.
phy with [125I]-DOI in
(B), htr2aj/j? Emx1-
Cre (C) mice shown at
and posterior slices. (D)
ings under basal condi-
tions from (1) htr2aþ/þ,
(2) htr2aj/j, and (3)
mice. (E) Voltage-clamp
recordings of the peak
response to bath-applied
5-HT (100 mM, 1 min) in
the same neurons. (F) Bar graph showing changes in sEPSC frequency in neurons
from htr2aþ/þand htr2aj/j? Emx1-Cre mice, using 5-HT (100 mM), 5-HT (100
mM) þ MDL 100907(100 nM),and NE(100mM).(G and H) OF measures.(I and
J) DLC measures. (K and L) NSF. See Fig. 1 for explanations. *P G 0.05, ***P G
0.0001. Mean T SEM, n 0 10 to 12 neurons per genotype, n 0 13 to 14 mice per
group for behavioral experiments.
www.sciencemag.org SCIENCEVOL 31328 JULY 2006
on January 29, 2008
groups, indicating that the loss of 5HT2AR Download full-text
signaling had no effect on the response to other
bioamines (Fig. 3E).
To determine whether restored cortical
5HT2AR signaling was sufficient to normalize
conflict behavior, we used three paradigms that
mice: OF, DLC, and NSF. In the OF, mice with
cortical restoration of 5HT2AR signaling ex-
hibited wild-type levels of anxiety-like behavior
as measured by the percentage of exploratory
activity in the center of the field (Fig. 3G; P G
0.05) and rearing (Fig. 3H; P G 0.05). Similar
effects of the cortical 5HT2AR rescue on anxiety
were seen in the DLC Edecreased percentage of
exploratory time (Fig. 3I; P G 0.05) and
decreased percentage of total time (Fig. 3J; P G
0.05) in the light compartment as compared to
htr2aj/jmice^ and the NSF (increased laten-
cy; Fig. 3K, P G 0.05 compared to htr2aj/j
mice). Corroborating the specificity of these
anxiety-related findings, behavioral responses
in depression-related paradigms, such as the
FST and TST, were unchanged in htr2aj/j?
Emx1-Cre mice (fig. S7) as compared with
htr2aj/jlittermates. A similar strategy when
used to restore 5HT2AR expression to a sub-
cortical region (i.e., thalamus) produced no
difference between rescue and htr2aj/jmice in
the DLC (see supporting online material), sup-
porting the specificity of the cortex in the nor-
malization of anxiety-related behaviors.
The tissue-specific restoration of an endog-
enous gene product to a knockout animal pro-
vides a precise method for assessing the role of
specific circuits in modulating behavior. In
addition, when a tissue-restricted rescue nor-
malizes the lost function of a global knockout,
such a finding offsets many of the interpretive
problems that arise with loss-of-function muta-
tions. In our study, the absence of measurable
adaptationsinthehtr2aj/jmice, combined with
the reversal of their phenotype by a selective re-
activationofhtr2A gene expression in the cortex,
suggests that nonspecific developmental alter-
ations are unlikely to explain our findings.
The precise role of 5-HT signaling in anxi-
ety appears to be complex. Mice with mutations
of the 5-HT plasma membrane transporter or
5-HT1Areceptor exhibit elevated anxiety levels,
but the effects of these mutations on anxiety
have been attributed to altered brain develop-
ment (24, 25). In contrast, the low-anxiety
phenotype of htr2aj/jmice does not appear
to be related to altered brain development, but
it may be related to the chronic nature of the
mutation in the adult mice. Attempts to reduce
conflict anxiety with acute pharmacological
administration of 5HT2AR antagonists have
been unsuccessful (26) or mixed (27), whereas
chronic reduction of 5HT2AR signaling through
the use of antisense receptor down-regulation
methods has proven quite effective (28). The
need for chronic blockade or down-regulation
of 5HT2ARs is consistent with the properties
of serotonergic anxiolytics that require several
weeks to achieve therapeutic effects.
The cortex has been hypothesized as a Btop-
down[ modulator of anxiety-related processes,
given the extensive interconnections between the
cortex and structures such as the hippocampus
and amygdala. Recent functional imaging data
in human subjects support this notion (29–31).
Thus, it is intriguing that 5-HT signaling in
the cortex can exert pronounced effects on
behavior in conflict anxiety tests. A primary
role of cortical 5HT2AR signaling in risk or
threat assessment may explain the specificity
of htr2a disruption on conflict anxiety and the
absence of effects on conditioned fear and
depression-related behaviors. Indeed, modu-
lation of layer V pyramidal neuron glutamate
release by 5HT2AR signaling is a likely mech-
could modify the activity of subcortical
structures. Given the complex effects of 5-HT
on a variety of central nervous system functions,
a better understanding of the receptor and neural
substrates that mediate them may lead to a more
nuanced view of 5-HT function and improved
therapeutics for anxiety and affective disorders.
References and Notes
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32. We thank P. Svenningson for help with 5HT2AR in situ
hybridization experiments, G. Marek for help with early
electrophysiology experiments, H. Westphal for sharing
the ‘‘stop’’ cassette, Y. Huang for help with bioamine
analysis, and F. Menzaghi and M. Milekic for critical
reading of the manuscript. Funding sources include
National Institute of Mental Health grant KO8 MH01711
(J.A.G.), National Institute on Drug Abuse grant P01
DA12923 (J.A.G., R.H., and S.C.S.), the Whitehall
Foundation, the American Foundation for Suicide
Prevention, the Gatsby Foundation, the Lieber Center for
Schizophrenia Research at Columbia University, and the
National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and
Depression Foundation (J.A.G., E.L., M.S.A.).
Supporting Online Material
Materials and Methods
Figs. S1 to S7
5 December 2005; accepted 8 June 2006
28 JULY 2006 VOL 313SCIENCEwww.sciencemag.org
on January 29, 2008