Regulation of progranulin expression in myeloid cells
ABSTRACT Progranulin (pgrn; granulin-epithelin precursor, PC-cell-derived growth factor, or acrogranin) is a multifunctional secreted glycoprotein implicated in tumorigenesis, development, inflammation, and repair. It is highly expressed in macrophage and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Here we investigate its regulation in myeloid cells. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) increased pgrn mRNA levels in myelomonocytic cells (CD34(+) progenitors; monoblastic U-937; monocytic THP-1; progranulocytic HL-60; macrophage RAW 264.7) but not in nonmyeloid cells tested. Interleukin-4 impaired basal expression of pgrn in U-937. Differentiation agents DMSO, and, in U-937 only, phorbol ester [phorbol 12-myristate,13-acetate (PMA)] elevated pgrn mRNA expression late in differentiation, suggestive of roles for pgrn in more mature terminally differentiated granulocyte/monocytes rather than during growth or differentiation. The response of pgrn mRNA to ATRA differs in U-937 and HL-60 lineages. In U-937, ATRA and chemical differentiation agents greatly increased pgrn mRNA stability, whereas, in HL-60, ATRA accelerated pgrn mRNA turnover. The initial upregulation of pgrn mRNA after stimulation with ATRA was independent of de novo protein synthesis in U-937 but not HL-60. Chemical blockade of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation impaired ATRA-stimulated pgrn expression in HL-60 but not U-937, whereas in U-937 it blocked PMA-induced pgrn mRNA expression, suggestive of cell-specific roles for NF-kappaB in determining pgrn mRNA levels. We propose that: 1) ATRA regulates pgrn mRNA levels in myelomonocytic cells; 2) ATRA acts in a cell-specific manner involving the differential control of mRNA stability and differential requirement for NF-kappaB signaling; and 3) elevated pgrn mRNA expression is characteristic of more mature cells and does not stimulate differentiation.
SourceAvailable from: Susanna Raitano[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To understand how haploinsufficiency of progranulin (PGRN) causes frontotemporal dementia (FTD), we created induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients carrying the GRNIVS1+5G > C mutation (FTD-iPSCs). FTD-iPSCs were fated to cortical neurons, the cells most affected in FTD. Although generation of neuroprogenitors was unaffected, their further differentiation into CTIP2-, FOXP2-, or TBR1-TUJ1 double-positive cortical neurons, but not motorneurons, was significantly decreased in FTD-neural progeny. Zinc finger nuclease-mediated introduction of GRN cDNA into the AAVS1 locus corrected defects in cortical neurogenesis, demonstrating that PGRN haploinsufficiency causes inefficient cortical neuron generation. RNA sequencing analysis confirmed reversal of the altered gene expression profile following genetic correction. We identified the Wnt signaling pathway as one of the top defective pathways in FTD-iPSC-derived neurons, which was reversed following genetic correction. Differentiation of FTD-iPSCs in the presence of a WNT inhibitor mitigated defective corticogenesis. Therefore, we demonstrate that PGRN haploinsufficiency hampers corticogenesis in vitro.
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is recognized as one of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in neurodegenerative disease. However, recent evidence has suggested that regulation of cellular fate in response to oxidative stress appears to be dependent on the stress levels. In this study, using HT22 cells, we attempted to understand how an alteration in the oxidative stress levels would influence neuronal cell fate. HT22 cell viability was reduced with exposure to high levels of oxidative stress, whereas, low levels of oxidative stress promoted cell survival. Erk1/2 activation induced by a low level of oxidative stress played a role in this cell protective effect. Intriguingly, subtoxic level of H2O2 induced expression of a growth factor, progranulin (PGRN), and exogenous PGRN pretreatment attenuated HT22 cell death induced by high concentrations of H2O2 in Erk1/2-dependent manner. Together, our study indicates that two different cell protection mechanisms are activated by differing levels of oxidative stress in HT22 cells.Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 07/2014; 78(9):1-9. DOI:10.1080/09168451.2014.936343 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) accounts for ∼50% of dementia cases before the age of 60. Up to 40% of FTD patients have a familial history (Goldman et al., 2005 and van Swieten and Heutink, 2008) due to mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT), progranulin gene (GRN), or C9orf72 gene (Baker et al., 2006, Cruts et al., 2006, DeJesus-Hernandez et al., 2011, Hutton et al., 1998 and Renton et al., 2011). The majority of FTD-causing mutations in GRN are predicted to result in functional null alleles, causing haploinsufficiency. Progranulin (PGRN) has neurotrophic function in vitro and in vivo. Although PGRN−/− mice are viable, they do not recapitulate all the features of FTD (Kayasuga et al., 2007).12/2014; 2(1). DOI:10.1016/j.stemcr.2014.12.001