Immunohistochemical localization of a GHB receptor-like protein isolated from rat brain.
ABSTRACT Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a substance derived from the metabolism of GABA and is heterogeneously distributed in various regions of the brain. This compound possesses a neuromodulatory role on several types of synapses, particularly those using GABA as a neurotransmitter. At physiological concentrations, this effect of GHB is mediated via specific receptors that induce neuronal hyperpolarization and bind radioactive GHB with a specific distribution, ontogenesis, kinetics, and pharmacology. A membrane protein that possesses six to seven transmembrane domains and which binds and is activated by micromolar amounts of GHB was recently cloned from rat brain hippocampus. In order to study the regional and cellular distribution of this receptor in rat brain, we selected several specific peptides belonging to the extracellular domains of the receptor to be used as specific immunogens to raise polyclonal antibodies in the rabbit. Among the antisera obtained, one of them gave particularly good results in terms of specificity and reactivity at high dilution. Immunohistochemical analyses, both at the confocal and electron microscopic level, showed receptor protein distribution closely resembling the distribution of GHB high-affinity binding sites, except for cerebellum, where GHB receptor(s) of lower affinity exist(s). In all regions studied the GHB receptor-like protein labeling appears to be distributed specifically in neurons and not in glial cells. At the cellular level the antibody specifically labels dendrites, and no immunoreactivity was detected in presynaptic endings or in axons. Accordingly, electron microscopy reveals strong labeling of postsynaptic densities and of neuronal cytosol.
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ABSTRACT: Neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease show a predilection for cortical pyramidal and subcortical projection neurons. The antigenic composition, neuronal specificity and distribution of aluminum-induced neurofibrillary degeneration were examined in regions of rabbit brain analogous to those that develop neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease. Neurofibrillary degeneration was induced by intraventricular instillation of aluminum chloride. In aluminum-treated rabbits, intensely immunoreactive filamentous aggregates were seen in affected neuronal perikarya after staining with an antiphosphorylated neurofilament antibody (SMI 31), while in controls immunoreactivity was confined to axon-like elements. Monoclonal antibodies against Microtubule-associated protein 2 and tau, which stain human neurofibrillary tangles, did not stain aluminum-induced neurofibrillary degeneration. Pyramidal neurons exhibiting neurofibrillary degeneration formed a discrete linear pattern in layers III and V of cortex. Cortical somatostatin and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase-reactive neurons identified in double-stained sections were unaffected. Large perikarya in the vicinity of the globus pallidus, some of which contained acetylcholinesterase, were frequently SMI 31-immunoreactive. Among the cell groups affected in the upper brainstem were the nucleus raphe dorsalis and locus coeruleus. These findings show that aluminum-induced neurofibrillary degeneration differs antigenically from neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease. Nevertheless, many neuronal subsets that are particularly susceptible to Alzheimer's disease, including cortical pyramidal neurons, basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and upper brainstem catecholaminergic neurons, are also affected by aluminum-induced neurofibrillary degeneration.Neuroscience 02/1989; 29(2):329-37. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tetraspanin-5 (Tspan-5) mRNA was recently shown to be strongly expressed within the central nervous system. In order to address Tspan-5 function during nervous system development, we performed a detailed expression analysis in the postnatal FVB/N mouse cerebellum using in situ hybridizations. Tspan-5 mRNA was expressed within cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) throughout postnatal development. The expression level, however, changed significantly with ongoing development. At the day of birth (P0), Tspan-5 mRNA was expressed at very low levels in PCs. At this time, PCs of the FVB/N strain are postmitotic and bear axons, but no dendrites. At P7, Tspan-5 mRNA expression was visible in all PCs, but was more prominent in those of the posterior lobules as compared to those of the anterior lobules. After P7, high levels of Tspan-5 mRNA were seen in all PCs, which is when PCs elaborate and maintain their typical dendritic tree. This demonstrates that the level of Tspan-5 mRNA is related to the developmental status of PCs. Consistently, expression of Tspan-5 mRNA was specifically reduced in PCs of L7En-2 animals, which display a delay in PC maturation during postnatal cerebellar development. In addition, whereas no Tspan-5 mRNA signal could be detected in the proliferating granule cell layer, low levels could be found in postmitotic, premigratory granule cells and high levels in settled and differentiated granule cells. Thus, the level of Tspan-5 mRNA expression correlates very well with the differentiation status of particular neurons. The level of Tspan-5 expression might therefore be important for distinct phases of neuronal maturation.The Journal of Comparative Neurology 04/2005; 483(3):318-28. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a naturally occurring compound that has the ability to induce generalized absence seizures when given to animals. GHB has been hypothesized to induce this effect via the postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) receptor. We sought to test this hypothesis by examining the affinity of GABAB agonists and antagonists for the [3H]GHB binding site, the affinity of GHB and a GHB antagonist for the [3H]GABAB binding site, and the effect of guanine nucleotides and pertussis toxin on both, using autoradiographic binding assays. GHB and its antagonist, NCS 382, did not compete for [3H]GABAB binding, nor did (-)-baclofen or the [3H]GABAB antagonists, CGP 35348 or SCH 50911, compete for [3H]GHB binding; however, the GABAB agonist 3-amino-propylphosphinic acid (3-APPA), and the GABAB antagonists phaclofen and 2-hydroxysaclofen (2-OH saclofen) did show a weak affinity for [3H]GHB binding in frontal cortex. GTP and the nonhydrolyzable GTP analogues, GTP gamma S and Gpp(NH)p, depressed [3H]GABAB binding throughout the brain, but increased [3H]GHB binding in frontal cortex and thalamus, those regions involved in GHB-induced absence seizures. Pertussis toxin significantly depressed [3H]GABAB binding throughout the brain, but attenuated [3H]GHB binding only in frontal cortex, and to a lesser degree than [3H]GABAB binding. The guanine nucleotide-induced changes in [3H]GHB and [3H]GABAB binding were due to a change in KD for both. Moreover, GTP gamma S reversed the ability of 3-APPA, phaclofen, and 2-OH saclofen to compete for [3H]GHB binding. These data do not support the hypothesis that GHB acts through the postsynaptic GABAB receptor to produce absence seizures. Rather, they raise the possibility either that the [3H]GHB binding site may be an isoform of the presynaptic GABAB receptor or that an independent GHB site is operative in the GHB model of absence seizures.Biochemical Pharmacology 11/1996; 52(8):1235-43. · 4.58 Impact Factor