Citicoline and lithium rescue retinal ganglion cells following partial optic nerve crush in the rat.
ABSTRACT Citicoline and lithium (Li(-)) have been shown to support retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axon regeneration in vitro. Optic nerve crush (ONC) is a model of both brain axonal injury and certain aspects of the glaucomatous degeneration of RGC. We have used this model to quantify protection offered to RGC by these drugs and to determine whether their effects are mediated by enhanced expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Adult rats (6-12 per group) were subjected to ONC accompanied by a contralateral sham operation. Animals were treated intraperitoneally with either vehicle, citicoline sodium (1g/kg daily for up to 7 days and 300 mg/kg daily afterwards), lithium chloride (30 mg/kg daily), or both drugs combined. Fluorogold was injected bilaterally into superior colliculi 1, 5 or 19 days after ONC. Labeled cells were counted under a fluorescence microscope 2 days after tracer injection. In a separate set of experiments the effects of treatments on expression of Bcl-2 in retinas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. In vehicle-treated animals there was a progressive decrease of RGC density after crush. This decrease was attenuated in citicoline-treated animals 1 week and 3 weeks after the crush. In the lithium-treated group protection was even more pronounced. In animals treated with both drugs RGC protection was similar to that achieved by lithium alone. Bcl-2 immunoreactivity was seen predominantly in retinal ganglion cells. Its increase was recorded in the lithium and citicoline group as well as in animals treated with the combination of both drugs. Both citicoline and lithium protect RGC and their axons in vivo against delayed degeneration triggered by the ONC. Retinoprotective action of both drugs may involve an increase in Bcl-2 expression.
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ABSTRACT: Glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO) are major diseases that can lead to blindness and affect mainly the elderly population worldwide. The results of recent investigations have demonstrated that the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons is the common pathological change in these three disease processes. The exact mechanism that is responsible for the onset and progression of RGC death and axonal degeneration in patients with glaucoma, DR and RVO has not been definitively determined. Thus, identifying the risk factors for the onset and the progression of RGC neuropathy can help in deciding not only the specific treatments but also whether the treatments should be initiated, withheld, or augmented in individuals with glaucoma, DR, and RVO. This review describes the major risk factors for the onset of glaucoma, and the factors associated with the progression of glaucoma that have been obtained from large population-based prevalence and incidence studies. In addition, the potential risk factors for glaucoma, diabetes mellitus, and RVO are discussed in terms of the results obtained by both clinical and laboratory studies. This review introduces potential neuroprotective therapies for damaged RGC in eyes with RGC neuropathy, and the factors that should be considered for a complete therapy for the RGC neuropathy involved in glaucoma, DR and RVO. Neuroprotective therapies combined with a reduction of the IOP should be considered for the complete management of RGC neuropathy involved in glaucoma, DR and RVO.Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 02/2012; S-3. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mood stabilizers lithium and valproic acid (VPA) are traditionally used to treat bipolar disorder (BD), a severe mental illness arising from complex interactions between genes and environment that drive deficits in cellular plasticity and resiliency. The therapeutic potential of these drugs in other central nervous system diseases is also gaining support. This article reviews the various mechanisms of action of lithium and VPA gleaned from cellular and animal models of neurologic, neurodegenerative, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Clinical evidence is included when available to provide a comprehensive perspective of the field and to acknowledge some of the limitations of these treatments. First, the review describes how action at these drugs' primary targets-glycogen synthase kinase-3 for lithium and histone deacetylases for VPA-induces the transcription and expression of neurotrophic, angiogenic, and neuroprotective proteins. Cell survival signaling cascades, oxidative stress pathways, and protein quality control mechanisms may further underlie lithium and VPA's beneficial actions. The ability of cotreatment to augment neuroprotection and enhance stem cell homing and migration is also discussed, as are microRNAs as new therapeutic targets. Finally, preclinical findings have shown that the neuroprotective benefits of these agents facilitate anti-inflammation, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, blood-brain barrier integrity, and disease-specific neuroprotection. These mechanisms can be compared with dysregulated disease mechanisms to suggest core cellular and molecular disturbances identifiable by specific risk biomarkers. Future clinical endeavors are warranted to determine the therapeutic potential of lithium and VPA across the spectrum of central nervous system diseases, with particular emphasis on a personalized medicine approach toward treating these disorders.Pharmacological reviews 01/2013; 65(1):105-42. · 17.00 Impact Factor
Article: [Neuroprotective approaches.][Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: After introduction of vitreoretinal surgery more than 40 years ago, further development of the procedure involved a continuous reduction of potential toxic effects by irrigating solutions, endoillumination or mechanical manipulation. Recently, additional efforts were made to prevent neurodegeneration via pharmacological intervention. Taurine as additive for irrigating solutions can be considered as an example for neuroprotectants in vitreoretinal surgery. Approval of neuroprotective agents demands an increased effort for preclinical and clinical evaluation. To date, only few neuroprotective substances are used in clinical routine in the context of vitreoretinal surgery, however, experimental data suggest a high potential of various neuroprotective agents. The following article gives an overview of current neuroprotective approaches feasible for vitreoretinal surgery and a critical analysis of their clinical relevance.Der Ophthalmologe 09/2013; · 0.53 Impact Factor