Bone marrow biopsy in the diagnoses of infectious and non-infectious causes in patients with advanced HIV infection
ABSTRACT Fever and peripheral blood abnormalities in patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are usually due to disseminated opportunistic infections. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of histopathological and microbiological investigations of bone marrow samples from HIV-infected patients with fever and/or cytopenias.
The diagnostic utility of bone marrow aspiration, biopsy and culture was retrospectively examined in 82 patients with HIV/AIDS (median CD4 count 51 microL(-1), range 1-430 microL(-1)) with peripheral cytopenias and/or fever attended at a large tertiary care hospital in Brazil during a one-year period. The diagnostic yield of bone marrow biopsy was 34.1% (28 cases) in contrast to only 8.5% (eight cases) attained by the bone marrow smear. Opportunistic pathogens were isolated from bone marrow cultures in 26.8% of patients.
Bone marrow biopsy has value in diagnosis of opportunistic infections, malignancies or other conditions in one-third of adult patients with advanced AIDS and fever or cytopenias and should be considered in this patient group.
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ABSTRACT: Fever of unknown origin (FUO) still remains a diagnostic challenge, while diagnosis may remain obscure for several weeks or months. The role of tissue biopsy is crucial in the diagnostic approach. We report a series of 130 consecutive patients with FUO who had undergone a bone marrow biopsy (BMB). Among 280 consecutive nonimmunocompromised patients hospitalized between 1995 and 2005 for a febrile illness of uncertain cause, lasting at least 3 weeks, with no diagnosis after an appropriate minimal diagnostic workup, 130 underwent BMB. Overall, a specific diagnosis was achieved by BMB and histological examination in 31 cases (diagnostic yield, 23.7%). Three types of diseases were found: hematological malignant diseases in 25 cases, including 19 patients with malignant lymphoma, 4 with acute leukemia, 1 with hairy cell leukemia, and 1 with multiple myeloma; infectious diseases in 3 cases; systemic mastocytosis in 2 cases; and disseminated granulomatosis in 1 case. Thrombocytopenia (odds ratio, 4.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-9.30) and anemia (odds ratio, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.13-9.34) were the most reliable predictive factors regarding the usefulness of BMB. Bone marrow cultures had very limited value in our cohort. Finally, corticosteroid use did not seem to affect the yield of BMB. Bone marrow biopsy is a useful technique for the diagnosis of prolonged fever in immunocompetent patients. Thrombocytopenia and anemia seem to be correlated with the value of this test.Archives of internal medicine 11/2009; 169(21):2018-23. DOI:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.401 · 13.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HIV-1 infection is associated with various quantitative and qualitative changes in haemopoietic cells. Clear distinction between primary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and secondary dysplasia may not always be possible. Adjunctive analyses used in the diagnosis of MDS include cytogenetics and flow cytometry (FCM). Much focus has been placed on establishing FCM guidelines aiding in the diagnosis of MDS, and to distinguish this condition from secondary dysplastic changes. One of the parameters often cited is the CD10 expression on the granulocyte population, as this marker denotes granulocytic maturation. To determine the expression level of CD10 on granulocytes in HIV positive patients. In total, 117 HIV-1 positive and 29 HIV-1 negative patients were included in this study. Bone marrow aspirate samples were evaluated in terms of morphological abnormality as well as CD10 expression on the granulocytic population. The average CD10 expression among the HIV-1 positive patients were markedly reduced, at 18.4%, and 113 patients (96.6%) of these patients had expression levels below 50%. Disease conditions causing secondary dysplasia, especially HIV-1 infection, is associated with a marked reduction in CD10 expression on the granulocyte population independent from the presence of myelodysplastic features. This marker is therefore of doubtful significance as a diagnostic tool in distinguishing between primary and secondary dysplasia.Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases 08/2010; 2(3):e2010032. DOI:10.4084/MJHID.2010.032
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ABSTRACT: A bone marrow biopsy is frequently requested in the work-up of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who present with fever and/or cytopenias in the search for opportunistic infections and malignancies. This is a retrospective review of the results of consecutive bone marrow biopsies performed at our institution over a three-year period on HIV-positive patients for the investigation of fever and/or cytopenias. Clinical data, haematological parameters, morphological features, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and microbiological culture results were analysed. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic yield of this investigation. Sixty-three males and 84 female patients were included for analysis. The bone marrow biopsy gave a high diagnostic yield of 47% (70 patients) and a unique diagnosis in 33% (49 patients). Immune thrombocytopenic purpura and disseminated mycobacterial infections were the most common unique diagnoses made (14%, respectively), followed by malignancies (4%). In this cohort, four cases of primary bone marrow involvement by Hodgkin lymphoma and one case of involvement by non-Hodgkin lymphoma were diagnosed. In our study group, a bone marrow biopsy was a useful investigation with a high diagnostic yield.International journal of laboratory hematology 12/2010; 33(3):258-66. DOI:10.1111/j.1751-553X.2010.01280.x · 1.87 Impact Factor