Inorganic arsenic in cooked rice and vegetables from Bangladeshi households.
ABSTRACT Many Bangladeshi suffer from arsenic-related health concerns. Most mitigation activities focus on identifying contaminated wells and reducing the amount of arsenic ingested from well water. Food as a source of arsenic exposure has been recently documented. The objectives of this study were to measure the main types of arsenic in commonly consumed foods in Bangladesh and estimate the average daily intake (ADI) of arsenic from food and water. Total, organic and inorganic, arsenic were measured in drinking water and in cooked rice and vegetables from Bangladeshi households. The mean total arsenic level in 46 rice samples was 358 microg/kg (range: 46 to 1,110 microg/kg dry weight) and 333 microg/kg (range: 19 to 2,334 microg/kg dry weight) in 39 vegetable samples. Inorganic arsenic calculated as arsenite and arsenate made up 87% of the total arsenic measured in rice, and 96% of the total arsenic in vegetables. Total arsenic in water ranged from 200 to 500 microg/L. Using individual, self-reported data on daily consumption of rice and drinking water the total arsenic ADI was 1,176 microg (range: 419 to 2,053 microg), 14% attributable to inorganic arsenic in cooked rice. The ADI is a conservative estimate; vegetable arsenic was not included due to limitations in self-reported daily consumption amounts. Given the arsenic levels measured in food and water and consumption of these items, cooked rice and vegetables are a substantial exposure pathway for inorganic arsenic. Intervention strategies must consider all sources of dietary arsenic intake.
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ABSTRACT: Arsenic contamination in the environment (i.e. surface, well and tube-well water, soil, sediment and rice samples) of central India (i.e. Ambagarh Chauki, Chhattisgarh) is reported. The concentration of the total arsenic in the samples i.e. water (n = 64), soil (n = 30), sediment (n = 27) and rice grain (n = 10) were ranged from 15 to 825 microg L(-1), 9 to 390 mg kg(-1), 19 to 489 mg kg(-1) and 0.018 to 0.446 mg kg(-1), respectively. In all type of waters, the arsenic levels exceeded the permissible limit, 10 microg L(-1). The most toxic and mobile inorganic species i.e. As(III) and As(V) are predominantly present in water of this region. The soils have relatively higher contents of arsenic and other elements i.e. Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ga, Zr, Sn, Sb, Pb and U. The mean arsenic contents in soil of this region are much higher than in arsenic soil of West Bengal and Bangladesh. The lowest level of arsenic in the soil of this region is 3.7 mg kg(-1) with median value of 9.5 mg kg(-1). The arsenic contents in the sediments are at least 2-folds higher than in the soil. The sources of arsenic contamination in the soil of this region are expected from the rock weathering as well as the atmospheric deposition. The environmental samples i.e. water, soil dust, food, etc. are expected the major exposure for the arsenic contamination. The most of people living in this region are suffering with arsenic borne diseases (i.e. melanosis, keratosis, skin cancer, etc.).Environmental Geochemistry and Health 05/2005; 27(2):131-45. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An investigation of total arsenic in food composites, collected from the villagers, was carried out in arsenic-affected areas of the Murshidabad district, West Bengal where the agricultural system is mostly groundwater dependent. The shallow, large-diameter tubewells installed for agricultural irrigation contain an appreciable amount of arsenic (mean 0.085 mg/l, n=6). Even the soil is arsenic-contaminated (mean 11.35 mg/kg, n=36), so some arsenic can be expected in the food chain from crops cultivated in this area. The results revealed that the individual food composite and food groups containing the highest mean arsenic concentrations (microg/kg) are potato skin (292.62 and 104), leaf of vegetables (212.34 and 294.67), arum leaf (331 and 341), papaya (196.50 and 373), rice (226.18 and 245.39), wheat (7 and 362), cumin (47.86 and 209.75), turmeric powder (297.33 and 280.9), cereals and bakery goods (156.37 and 294.47), vegetables (91.73 and 123.22), spices (92.22 and 207.60) and miscellaneous items (138.37 and 137.80) for the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively. Arsenic is absorbed by the skin of most of the vegetables. The arsenic concentration in fleshy vegetable material is low (mean 2.72 microg/kg, n=45). Higher levels of arsenic were observed in cooked items compared with raw. Daily dietary intakes of arsenic (microg) from the foodstuffs for adults are 171.20 and 189.13 and for children are 91.89 and 101.63 in the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively.Food and Chemical Toxicology 12/2002; 40(11):1611-21. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The groundwater in seven districts of West Bengal, India, covering an area of 37,000 km2 with a population of 34 million, has been contaminated with arsenic. In 830 villages/wards more than 1.5 million people, out of the total population, drink the arsenic-contaminated water. Safe water from a source having < 0.002 mg 1(-1) arsenic has been supplied for 2 years to five affected families comprising 17 members (eight of them with arsenical skin-lesions) of different age groups for impact assessment study in terms of loss of arsenic through urine, hair and nail. The study indicates random observable fluctuations of arsenic concentration in urine among members on different scheduled sampling days with a declining trend, particularly during the first 6 months. Furthermore, the investigation showed that despite having safe water for drinking and cooking, the study group could not avoid an intake of arsenic, time and again, through edible herbs grown in contaminated water, food materials contaminated through washing, and the occasional drinking of contaminated water. After minimizing the level of contamination, a noteworthy declining trend after 8 months was observed in urine, hair and nails in all the cases, but not to that level observed in a normal population, due to prevailing elevated background level of arsenic in the area. The eight members, who had already developed skin lesions, are far from recovering completely, indicating a long-lasting damage. Statistical interpretation of the data are considered.Science of The Total Environment 08/1998; 218(2-3):185-201. · 3.26 Impact Factor