Reliability of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale, and Tiffany Questionnaire for Smoking Urges in Smokers with and without Schizophrenia

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States
Drug and Alcohol Dependence (Impact Factor: 3.28). 01/2007; 86(2-3):278-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.06.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Few studies have examined the psychometrics of smoking-related behavioral measures in schizophrenia and questions have been raised about the applicability to smokers with schizophrenia. We examined the reliability of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (M-NWS), and the Tiffany Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (TQSU) for smokers with schizophrenia (SS; n=151) and nonpsychiatric smokers (CS; n=181) recruited into three studies with similar inclusion criteria. SS and CS did not differ on a number of demographic and smoking variables (e.g., age). SS reported higher carbon monoxide (CO) levels, plasma cotinine levels, FTND, M-NWS, and TQSU Factor 1 scores. The internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha) of the smoking measures were found to be high and comparable between diagnostic groups for the FTND, M-NWS total scores, and TQSU Factor 2 (all alpha's>0.70) but higher for the CS than SS for the TQSU Factor 1 (0.86 versus 0.79). Test-retest correlations were lower for SS than CS on the FTND (0.65 versus 0.82), TQSU Factor 1 (0.65 versus 0.79), and TQSU Factor 2 (0.69 versus 0.81), but did not differ between diagnostic groups for M-NWS (0.58 versus 0.64). Our findings suggest that these measures may be reliable for use in smokers with schizophrenia.

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    • "The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to measure tobacco use and dependence (Heatherton, Kozlowski, Frecker, & Fagerstrom, 1991). Internal consistency is high and test–retest reliability is satisfactory (Pomerleau, Carton, Lutzke, Flessland, & Pomerleau, 1994; Weinberger et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: One of the characteristics of people suffering from addictive behaviors is the tendency to be distracted by drug cues. This attentional bias for drug cues is thought to lead to increased craving and drug use, and may draw individuals into a vicious cycle of drug addiction. In the current study we developed a Dutch version of the cannabis Stroop task and measured attentional bias for cannabis words in a group of heavy cannabis users and matched controls. The classical Stroop task was used as a global measure of cognitive control and we examined the relationship between cognitive control, cannabis-related problems, cannabis craving and cannabis attentional bias. Using our version of the cannabis Stroop task, a group of heavy cannabis users showed attentional bias to cannabis words, whereas a control group of non-users did not. Furthermore, within the group of cannabis users, those who were clinically recognized as dependent showed a stronger attentional bias than the heavy, non-dependent users. Cannabis users who displayed reduced cognitive control (as measured with the classical Stroop task) showed increased session-induced craving. Contrary to expectations, however, cognitive control did not appear to modulate the relationship between attentional bias to cannabis words (cannabis Stroop task) and cannabis dependence. This study confirmed the relationship between cannabis dependence and attentional bias and extends this by highlighting a moderating role for cognitive control, which may make some more vulnerable to craving.
    Addictive behaviors 08/2013; 38(12):2825-2832. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.08.011 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    • "At baseline and 2 months, research staff administered the following measures by in-person interview. The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence assessed nicotine dependence with scores that can range from 1 (indicating the least dependence ) to 10 (most dependence; Weinberger et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: People with severe mental illnesses are more likely to have nicotine dependence than the general population and do not use effective cessation treatment when they try to quit. Previous research has shown that a web-based motivational decision support system tailored for this population is associated with increased use of evidence-based cessation treatment. This study examines how user characteristics, including cognitive functioning and psychiatric symptoms, impact use and outcomes of this website. Methods: One hundred twenty-eight smokers with severe mental illnesses were assessed at baseline for demographics, smoking characteristics, symptoms, cognition, and reading ability. They used the decision support system within 2 weeks of the baseline interview. Two months after use of the decision support system, researchers assessed participants' smoking behaviors, use of evidence-based cessation treatment, clinician contact, and other quitting behaviors. Analyses modeled the relationship of participant characteristics to (a) process outcomes, including time spent on the website, and (b) behavioral outcomes, including use of effective cessation treatment. Results: Thirty-two percent of smokers initiated one or more of the recommended treatments after using the decision support system and 51% demonstrated some kind of smoking cessation behavior. When controlling for cigarette use, symptoms, cognition, and other potential predictors, regression analysis showed that being older, having a diagnosis of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, and cognitive impairment were associated with a greater amount of time spent in the motivation section. Older age and diagnosis of schizophrenia were associated with time spent in the decision support section. Controlling for multiple characteristics, participants' self-reported readiness to quit smoking was the only characteristic that predicted use of cessation treatment and other cessation behaviors over the following 2 months. Conclusions: Smokers with serious mental illness compensated for symptoms, old age, lower cognition, and lower reading capability by taking more time using the motivational decision support system. Following use, one-third of smokers engaged in treatment regardless of individual characteristics. The flexible design of this intervention may allow participants to tailor their use of it to meet individual needs. Future research should address both process and outcomes of motivational smoking cessation interventions. (Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 8:315-325, 2012)
    Journal of Dual Diagnosis 11/2012; 8(4):315. DOI:10.1080/15504263.2012.723316 · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    • "reliability and moderate internal consistency for the FTND scale (Weinberger et al., 2007; Wu et al.,2011). The state of Kerala located in the south west corner of India has been recognised for its high literacy rate and good level of health indicators. "
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    ABSTRACT: An attempt was made to understand the nicotine dependence of smokers selected for an ongoing smoking cessation intervention programme in rural Kerala, India. Data were collected from resident males in the age group of 18 to 60 years from 4 randomly allocated community development blocks of rural Thiruvananthapuram district (2 intervention and 2 control groups). Trained accredited social health activist workers were utilised to collect data from all groups through face to face interview. Nicotine dependence among participants was assessed by means of the six-item Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) translated into the local language. The internal consistency of FTND was computed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Criterion validity (concurrent) was assessed by correlations of nicotine dependence scores with age at initiation of smoking and cumulative smoking volume in pack-years. Among the 928 smokers identified, 474 subjects were in the intervention area (mean age =44.6 years, SD =9.66 years) and 454 in the control area (mean age= 44.5 years, SD =10.30 years). The overall FTND score among current daily smokers was 5.04 (SD: 5.05). FTND scores in the control and intervention areas were 4.75 (SD: 2.57) and 4.92 (SD: 2.51) respectively. The FTND scores increased with age and decreased with higher literacy and socioeconomic status. The average FTND score was high among smokers using both bidi and cigarettes (mean 6.10, SD 2.17). Internal consistency analysis yielded a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.70 in a subsample of 150 subjects, a moderate result. The association of the scale was strongest, with the number of pack-years smoked (rho = 0.677, p < 0.001). A moderate level of nicotine dependence was observed among smokers in the current study. Tobacco cessation strategies could be made more cost effective and productive if a baseline assessment of nicotine dependence is completed before any intervention.
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