Health literacy and adherence to glaucoma therapy.
ABSTRACT To describe the health literacy of subjects with open angle glaucoma and to investigate the hypothesis that low health literacy is associated with poor glaucoma medication adherence.
Cross-sectional patient survey and concomitant chart review.
One hundred and ninety-seven subjects with open angle glaucoma participated in a survey which included basic demographic information such as age, gender, ethnicity, and level of education completed, and a test of heath literacy, the Rapid Assessment of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Information was collected regarding visual field tests and prescribed medication. The subjects' pharmacies were contacted to ascertain the number of refills requested over the previous six months.
Although 146 subjects (74%) reported completing high school, only 94 subjects (48.0%) read at or above a ninth grade level; 23 (11.7%) read at a level of third grade or below. The mean number of refills requested by a subject in the preceding six months was not predicted by race (P = .27,) gender (P = .31), age (P = .92), mean deviation of the visual field (P = .36), or level of education (P = .58). There was a positive relationship between health literacy and the number of refills obtained (P = .003).
Many patients with open angle glaucoma may have poor health literacy. The subjects in our study with low literacy were less adherent with their glaucoma medications than those with a higher level of literacy. Interventions specifically targeting patients with low literacy may improve medication adherence.
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to validate a shortened version of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM). This screening instrument is designed to be used in public health and primary care settings to identify patients with low reading levels. It provides reading grade estimates for patients who read below a ninth-grade level. The REALM can be administered in one to two minutes by personnel with minimal training. Two hundred and three patients in four university hospital clinics (internal medicine, family practice, ambulatory care, and obstetrics/gynecology) were given the REALM and three other standardized reading tests: the reading recognition section of the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised (PIAT-R), the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R), and the Slosson Oral Reading Test-Revised (SORT-R). One hundred inmates at a state prison were also given the REALM twice, one week apart, to determine test-retest reliability. The REALM correlated well with the three other tests. (Correlation coefficients were 0.97 [PIAT-R], 0.96 [SORT-R], and 0.88 [WRAT-R].) All correlations were significant at P < .0001. Test-retest reliability was 0.99 (P < .001). The REALM provides an estimate of patient reading ability, displays excellent concurrent validity with standardized reading tests, and is a practical instrument for busy primary care settings.Family medicine 06/1993; 25(6):391-5. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify determinants of nonadherence to medication in outpatients with established inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ten gastroenterologists and 153 of their IBD patients participated in this prospective study. Demographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics, as well as patient-physician discordance, were assessed at an office visit. Nonadherence to medication was assessed 2 wk later. Separate generalized estimating equations were used to identify determinants of nonadherence. Physicians averaged 47.9 yr in age (range 30.1-57.5 yr), and 90% were male. Patients averaged 37.0 yr (SD = 15.1), and 87 (56.9%) were female. In all, 63 patients (41.2%) were nonadherent to medication; of these, 51 (81.0%) indicated unintentional nonadherence, 23 (36.5%) intentional nonadherence, and 11 (17.5%) both. Overall nonadherence was predicted by disease activity (OR = 0.55, p = 0.0022), new patient status (OR = 2.14, p = 0.0394), disease duration (OR = 0.50, p = 0.0001), and scheduling a follow-up appointment (OR = 0.30, p = 0.0059), whereas higher discordance on well-being was predictive only in psychologically nondistressed patients (p = 0.0026 for interaction). Unintentional nonadherence was predicted by age (OR = 0.97, p = 0.0072), new patient status (OR = 2.80, p = 0239), and higher discordance on well-being in psychologically nondistressed patients (p = 0.0504). Intentional nonadherence was predicted by disease duration (OR = 0.55, p = 0032), scheduling a follow-up appointment (OR = 0.12, p = 0.0001), certainty that medication would be helpful (OR = 0.99, p = 0.0409), and total patient-physician discordance (OR = 1.59, p =.0120). These findings suggest that the therapeutic relationship, as well as individual clinical and psychosocial characteristics, influence adherence to medication.The American Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2003; 98(7):1535-44. · 7.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to demonstrate the utility of continuous monitoring and enhancement of medication compliance during a long-term clinical trial, predictors of compliance, and relationships to drinking outcomes. Alcohol-dependent patients enrolled in a multicenter VA cooperative study were randomly assigned to once-daily naltrexone (NTX) for 3 or 12 months (short-term or long-term NTX) or placebo for 12 months of treatment. All medications were dispensed in bottles with medication event monitoring (MEMS, AARDEX, Union City, CA) caps with a microprocessor that recorded openings as presumptive doses. Patients were trained to develop personal cues as dosing reminders. Monthly feedback sessions included review of compliance data and cues. There were no significant differences among short-term NTX, long-term NTX, and placebo (209 each) groups in measures of compliance. Overall compliance rates were 71% +/- 31% of doses for the first 13 weeks and 43% +/- 33% of doses over 52 weeks. Some doses were taken during 83% +/- 27% of the first 13 weeks. Higher medication compliance predicted fewer drinks per drinking day (P = .02) throughout follow-up and a lower percentage of drinking days (P = .002 during the first 13 weeks) with no significant effect for treatment group. The feedback and monitoring programs were important features to demonstrate that lack of treatment effect was not a result of poor compliance. Medication compliance data supported the internal validity of the trial by demonstrating that good compliers had better outcomes, irrespective of treatment with NTX or placebo. The MEMS feedback methodology is feasible for use in multicenter trials.Value in Health 01/2003; 6(5):566-73. · 2.19 Impact Factor