Different Polycomb group complexes regulate common target genes in Arabidopsis. EMBO Rep 7(9): 947-952

ETH Zürich, Institute of Plant Sciences and Zürich-Basel Plant Science Center, Plant Developmental Biology, LFW E 31, Universitätsstrasse 2, Zürich 8092, Switzerland.
EMBO Reports (Impact Factor: 9.06). 10/2006; 7(9):947-52. DOI: 10.1038/sj.embor.7400760
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Polycomb group (PcG) proteins convey epigenetic inheritance of repressed transcriptional states. Although the mechanism of the action of PcG is not completely understood, methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) is important in establishing PcG-mediated transcriptional repression. We show that the plant PcG target gene PHERES1 is regulated by histone trimethylation on H3K27 residues mediated by at least two different PcG complexes in plants, containing the SET domain proteins MEDEA or CURLY LEAF/SWINGER. Furthermore, we identify FUSCA3 as a potential PcG target gene and show that FUSCA3 is regulated by MEDEA and CURLY LEAF/SWINGER. We propose that different PcG complexes regulate a common set of target genes during the different stages of plant development.

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Available from: Claudia Köhler, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "FIS2 is an indispensable subunit of the FIS complex, and EMF2 and VRN2 cannot substitute it (Chanvivattana et al., 2004; Roszak and Köhler, 2011). Nevertheless, the FIS and the EMF complex share target genes, which they repress during gametogenesis and early seed development and during sporophytic development, respectively (Makarevich et al., 2006) (Fig. 1). FIE and MSI1 are both essential subunits of all three PRC2 complexes in Arabidopsis (Hennig et al., 2003; Köhler et al., 2003a; De Lucia et al., 2008; Derkacheva et al., 2013) (Fig. 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: Polycomb group (PcG) proteins evolved early in evolution, probably in the common ancestor of animals and plants. In some unicellular organisms, such as Chlamydomonas and Tetrahymena, PcG proteins silence genes in heterochromatin, suggesting an ancestral function in genome defence. In angiosperms, the PcG system controls many developmental transitions. A PcG function in the vernalization response evolved especially in Brassicaceaea. Thus, the role of PcG proteins has changed during evolution to match novel needs. Recent studies identified many proteins associated with plant PcG protein complexes. Possible functions of these interactions are discussed here. We highlight recent findings about recruitment of PcG proteins in plants in comparison with animal system. Through the new data, a picture emerges in which PcG protein complexes do not function in sequential linear pathways but as dynamically interacting networks allowing stabilizing feedback loops. We discuss how the interplay between different PcG protein complexes can enable establishment, maintenance, and epigenetic inheritance of H3K27me3.
    Journal of Experimental Botany 12/2013; 65(10). DOI:10.1093/jxb/ert410 · 5.53 Impact Factor
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    • "MEDEA (MEA) (Grossniklaus et al., 1998), CURLY LEAF (CLF) (Goodrich et al., 1997), and SWINGER (SWN) (Chanvivattana et al., 2004) are the EZH2 homologs; EMBRYONIC FLOWER2 (EMF2), FERTILISATION INDEPENDENT SEED2 (FIS2), and VERNALIZATION2 (VRN2) are the SU(Z)12 homologs (Luo et al., 1999; Gendall et al., 2001; Yoshida et al., 2001); FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) is the unique EED homolog (Ohad et al., 1999); and MULTICOPY SUPRESSOR OF IRA1–5 (MSI1–5) are the five RbAp46/48 homologs, but only MSI1 has been shown to be part of the PRC2s (Köhler et al., 2003; De Lucia et al., 2008; Derkacheva et al., 2013). Although the different PRC2s have discrete roles in controlling distinct aspects of plant development , they also regulate a common set of target genes at different stages of development (Makarevich et al., 2006). As in animals, several PHD proteins, such as VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE3 (VIN3) (Sung and Amasino, 2004; Wood et al., 2006), VERNALIZATION5 (VRN5, also known as VIL1) (Sung et al., 2006; Greb et al., 2007), and VIN3-LIKE 2 (VIL2) (Kim and Sung, 2010), have been shown to co-purify with the VRN2-PRC2. "
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    ABSTRACT: From mammals to plants, the Polycomb Group (PcG) machinery plays a crucial role in maintaining the repression of genes that are not required in a specific differentiation status. However, the mechanism by which PcG machinery mediates gene repression is still largely unknown in plants. Compared to animals, few PcG proteins have been identified in plants, not only because just some of these proteins are clearly conserved to their animal counterparts, but also because some PcG functions are carried out by plant-specific proteins, most of them as yet uncharacterized. For a long time, the apparent lack of Polycomb Repressive Complex (PRC)1 components in plants was interpreted according to the idea that plants, as sessile organisms, do not need a long-term repression as they must be able to respond rapidly to environmental signals; however, some PRC1 components have been recently identified, indicating that this may not be the case. Furthermore, new data regarding the recruitment of PcG complexes and maintenance of PcG repression in plants have revealed important differences to what has been reported so far. This review highlights recent progress in plant PcG function, focusing on the role of the putative PRC1 components.
    Molecular Plant 10/2013; 7(3). DOI:10.1093/mp/sst150 · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    • "architecture are likely to be required for the highly regulated expression of seed - specific genes . This con - clusion is also consistent with earlier reports that many genes involved in embryogenesis are repressed during vegetative growth or in vegetative tissues by several independent mecha - nisms of chromatin remodeling ( Li et al . , 2005 ; Makarevich et al . , 2006 ; Tang et al . , 2008 ; Gao et al . , 2009 ) ."
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    ABSTRACT: The complete lack of seed storage protein expression in vegetative tissues and robust expression during embryogenesis makes seed development an ideal system to study tissue-specific expression of genes. The promoter for the Phaseolin (phas) gene, which encodes the major seed storage protein in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), is activated in two sequential steps: Phaseolus vulgaris ABI3-like factor (Pv-ALF)-dependent potentiation and abscisic acid-mediated activation. In this study, a heterologous in vivo Pv-ALF/phas-GUS (for β-glucuronidase) expression system in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana leaves was used in conjunction with the powerful RNA-Seq approach to capture transcriptional landscapes of phas promoter expression. Remarkably, expression of over 1300 genes from 11 functional categories coincided with changes in the transcriptional status of the phas promoter. Gene network analysis of induced genes and artificial microRNA-mediated loss-of-function genetic assays identified transcriptional regulators RINGLET 2 (RLT2) and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE 5 (AIL5) as being essential for phas transcription. Pv-ALF binding to the RLT2 and AIL5 promoter regions was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. RLT2 and AIL5 knockdown lines displayed reduced expression of several endogenous seed genes, suggesting that these factors are involved in activation of endogenous Arabidopsis seed storage gene expression. Overall, the identification of these key factors involved in phas activation provides important insight into the two-step transcriptional regulation of seed-specific gene expression.
    The Plant Cell 07/2013; 25(7). DOI:10.1105/tpc.113.112714 · 9.34 Impact Factor
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