Association between HIV and subpreputial penile wetness in uncircumcised men in South Africa
ABSTRACT To describe the prevalence and characteristics of subpreputial penile wetness and to investigate the association between current levels of penile wetness and HIV infection.
Male attenders at a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Durban, South Africa were enrolled and treated for their presenting sexually transmitted infection complaint. They were asked to return after 14 days when a structured questionnaire was administered, and the degree of wetness of the glans penis and coronal sulcus was assessed clinically.
Six hundred and fifty men were enrolled, and 488 (75%) returned. Three hundred eighty-six uncircumcised men were included for statistical analysis of whom 215 (56%) were HIV positive. One hundred ninety-six (50.8%) had no penile wetness, and 190 (49.2%) had penile wetness. In the adjusted analysis, penile wetness was associated with younger age, low level of attained education, low income, higher lifetime numbers of sexual partners, and not washing after sex. The prevalence of HIV was greater in those with penile wetness 126 of 190 (66.3%) compared with 90 of 196 (45.9%) with no penile wetness, crude prevalence odds ratio 2.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-3.50, P=or<0.001), crude prevalence relative risk 1.44 (95% CI, 1.23-1.63, P=or<0.001), and adjusted for predictors of HIV, confounders and herpes type 2 antibodies, odds ratio 2.38 (95% CI, 1.42-3.97, P=or<0.001), and relative risk 1.46 (95% CI, 1.19-1.68, P=or<0.001).
This is the first study to show an association between subpreputial penile wetness and HIV. Consideration should be given to providing advice about improving penile hygiene in uncircumcised men in areas where HIV is a significant problem. Good penile hygiene should also be promoted at the community level to become a desirable social norm.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Male circumcision could provide substantial protection against acquisition of HIV-1 infection. Our aim was to determine whether male circumcision had a protective effect against HIV infection, and to assess safety and changes in sexual behaviour related to this intervention. We did a randomised controlled trial of 2784 men aged 18-24 years in Kisumu, Kenya. Men were randomly assigned to an intervention group (circumcision; n=1391) or a control group (delayed circumcision, 1393), and assessed by HIV testing, medical examinations, and behavioural interviews during follow-ups at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. HIV seroincidence was estimated in an intention-to-treat analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, with the number NCT00059371. The trial was stopped early on December 12, 2006, after a third interim analysis reviewed by the data and safety monitoring board. The median length of follow-up was 24 months. Follow-up for HIV status was incomplete for 240 (8.6%) participants. 22 men in the intervention group and 47 in the control group had tested positive for HIV when the study was stopped. The 2-year HIV incidence was 2.1% (95% CI 1.2-3.0) in the circumcision group and 4.2% (3.0-5.4) in the control group (p=0.0065); the relative risk of HIV infection in circumcised men was 0.47 (0.28-0.78), which corresponds to a reduction in the risk of acquiring an HIV infection of 53% (22-72). Adjusting for non-adherence to treatment and excluding four men found to be seropositive at enrollment, the protective effect of circumcision was 60% (32-77). Adverse events related to the intervention (21 events in 1.5% of those circumcised) resolved quickly. No behavioural risk compensation after circumcision was observed. Male circumcision significantly reduces the risk of HIV acquisition in young men in Africa. Where appropriate, voluntary, safe, and affordable circumcision services should be integrated with other HIV preventive interventions and provided as expeditiously as possible.The Lancet 03/2007; 369(9562):643-56. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60312-2 · 45.22 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In 2005, 4.1 million people were infected with HIV. There is an urgent need to intensify and expand HIV prevention methods. Male circumcision is one of several potential approaches. This review summarizes recent evidence for the potential of male circumcision to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. The first randomized controlled trial of adult male circumcision found a highly significant 60% reduction in HIV incidence among men in the intervention arm. Modelling this effect predicts that widespread implementation of male circumcision could avert 2 million HIV infections over the next decade in sub-Saharan Africa. The biological rationale is that the foreskin increases risk of HIV infection due to the high density of HIV target cells and lack of keratinization of the inner mucosal surface. There is strong evidence that male circumcision reduces risk of HIV, syphilis and chancroid. If results are confirmed by two ongoing trials in sub-Saharan Africa, provision of safe male circumcision could be added to HIV prevention packages in high-incidence settings. This would also provide an opportunity for HIV-prevention education and counselling to young men at high risk of infection.Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 03/2007; 20(1):66-72. DOI:10.1097/QCO.0b013e328011ab73 · 5.03 Impact Factor
- International Journal of STD & AIDS 06/2007; 18(5):363. DOI:10.1258/095646207780749619 · 1.04 Impact Factor