Characterization of the CHORI-240 BAC clones containing the bovine CSN1S1, CSN2, STATH, CSN1S2 and CSN3 genes.
ABSTRACT Nineteen BAC clones were identified by hybridization of the bovine genomic BAC library CHORI-240 with mixed CSN1S1- and CSN3-specific probes. Two of the clones were shown to contain the genes CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, STATH and CSN3, and five were proved to include the genes CSN2, STATH, CSN1S2 and CSN3. These data showed that the BAC contig was established for the whole casein cluster, including all known five genes.
- Mammalian Genome 05/1997; 8(4):285-6. · 2.42 Impact Factor
- Mammalian Genome 03/1997; 8(2):148-52. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mammalian-specific casein gene cluster comprises 3 or 4 evolutionarily related genes and 1 physically linked gene with a functional association. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms regulating the entire casein cluster at the genomic level we initiated a multispecies comparative sequence analysis. Despite the high level of divergence at the coding level, these studies have identified uncharacterized family members within two species and the presence at orthologous positions of previously uncharacterized genes. Also the previous suggestion that the histatin/statherin gene family, located in this region, was primate specific was ruled out. All 11 genes identified in this region appear to encode secretory proteins. Conservation of a number of noncoding regions was observed; one coincides with an element previously suggested to be important for beta-casein gene expression in human and cow. The conserved regions might have biological importance for the regulation of genes in this genomic "neighborhood."Genomics 11/2003; 82(4):417-32. · 3.01 Impact Factor
The structure of the casein gene cluster is highly
conserved among mammalian species (Rijnkels
et al. 1997a; Rijnkels et al. 1997b; Rijnkels et al.
2003). In the human, mouse, rat and cattle, these
genes are ordered in the same way: CSN1S1,
CSN2, STATH, CSN1S2 and CSN3 (Rijnkels et al.
genes have been localized in human, mouse
and rat casein clusters but still have not been iden-
the 5’-flanking region and coding part of the bo-
vine casein gene cluster via hybridization of the
bovine genomic BAC library CHORI-240 with
CSN1S1- and CSN3-specific DNA probes.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments
representing the 5’-flanking region and exon 1
of bovine gene CSN1S1 (GenBank accession num-
ber X03590) and exon 4 and intron 4 of CSN3
(AJ841946) were amplified from bovine genomic
DNA by using the following primer pairs:
CSN3fw, GAAATCCCTA CCATCAATACC; and
CSN3rv, CCATCTACG CTAGTTTAGATG. PCR
270 bp for CSN3.
Large insert clones containing CSN1S1 and
CSN3, with average insert size of 180 kb, were de-
tected by screening of bovine genomic BAC li-
brary CHORI-240 Segment I (http://bacpac.chori.
J Appl Genat 47(3), 2006, pp. 243–245
Characterization of the CHORI-240 BAC clones containing
the bovine CSN1S1, CSN2, STATH, CSN1S2 and CSN3 genes
Alexei A. Sazanov1, Tadeusz Malewski2, Stanis³aw Kamiñski3, Lech Zwierzchowski2
1Laboratory of Molecular Genome Organization, Institute of Farm Animal Genetics and Breeding, Russian Academy
of Agricultural Sciences, Moskovskoye sh. St Petersburg–Pushkin, Russia.
2Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jastrzêbiec,
Wólka Kosowska, Poland
3Department of Animal Genetics, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland
Abstract. Nineteen BAC clones were identified by hybridization of the bovine genomic BAC library
CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, STATH and CSN3, and five were proved to include the genes CSN2, STATH, CSN1S2
and CSN3. These data showed that the BAC contig was established for the whole casein cluster, including all
known five genes.
Key words: BAC-libraries, Bos taurus, contig, casein genes.
Received: November 15, 2005. Revised: January 11, 2006. Accepted: January 23, 2006.
Correspondence: T. Malewski, Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding,
Polish Academy of Sciences, Jastrzêbiec, 05–552 Wólka Kosowska, Poland; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
org/bovine240.htm) with 6.1-fold genome cover-
age by using radioactively labeled DNA probes
specific for those genes. Nineteen BAC clones
were identified by hybridization with mixed
CSN1S1- and CSN3-specific probes (Table 1).
and CSN3-specific primers (Table 1) were used to
confirm the presence of the sequences of interest
in those BAC clones. Eight BAC clones were de-
tected as positive for at least one primer pair
clones were confirmed to contain CSN1S1,
CSN1S2, CSN2, STATH and CSN3 genes (Ta-
ble 2). In the casein gene cluster, the distance be-
tween bovine CSN1S1 and CSN3 is about 250 kb
(Rijnkels et al. 2003). The insert size of BAC
clonesfrom bovine genomicBAClibrary
244A.A. Sazanov et al.
Locus Gene Bank IDPrimersAnnealing temperature
PCR fragment size
rv 5'- AGACTGGAGCAGAGGCAGAG -3'
fw 5'- ATTTATGGCCATTCCACCAA -3'
rv 5'- GATCTCAGGTGGGCTCTCAA-3'
Table 2. Summary of PCR confirmation results
CSN1S1CSN2STATH CSN1S2 CSN3
CHORI-240 Segment I is on average 180 kb,
and ranges from <100 kb to 270 kb (http://bacpac.
chori.org/bovine240.htm). Insert sizes were eval-
uated by cutting of CH240-130F23 and CH240-
035O12 clones with restriction enzyme NotI. The
insert sizes were 265 kb and 263 kb in
CH240-130F23 and CH240-035O12 clones, re-
spectively. So, the CH240-130F23 and CH240-
035O12 clones include all the coding sequences
of the cluster and, probably, up to 20 kb of the 5’
for putative LCRs (locus controlling regions)
within the clone CH240-130F23, because such el-
ements are usually located in 5’ flanking regions
up to –35 kb upstream of coding genes (Li et al.
1999). Five clones were shown to give positive
PCR results with CSN2, STATH, CSN1S2 and
CSN3 genes (Table 2). These data showed that the
BAC contig was established for the whole casein
cluster, including all the 5 known genes (Table 2;
Figure 1). In the Bovine Genome Database
dex.html) the STATH and CSN1S2 are located in the
NW_936323 contig at
and 26 59538 541, respectively. The CSN2
and CSN1S1are in the contig NW_973412 at posi-
tions 418 544426 774 and 445 522463 059, respec-
tively. The CSN3 gene is not referred to in the
Bovine Genome Database. So, we can conclude
that the distance between STATH and CSN1S2
is 25 505 bp, and between CSN2 and CSN1S1
is 18 748 bp. Basing on the known insert sizes
of BAC clones in the CHORI-240 library and esti-
mated distance in approximately 200 kb between
CSN1S1 and CSN3 (Rijnkels et al. 2003), we con-
clude that this contig could contain up to 70 kb
of flanking regions. A maximum 7-fold coverage
of the contig is assumed in the 3’ region of the
and CSN3 genes.
Acknowledgements. This work was supported by
grants from the State Committee for Scientific Re-
search, Warsaw, Poland (KBN 3P06D00523) and
Li Q, Harju S, Peterson KR, 1999. Locus control re-
netics 15: 403–408.
Rijnkels M, Meershoek E, de Boer HA, Pieper FR,
1997a. Physical map and localization of the human
casein gene locus. Mamm Genome 8: 285–286.
Rijnkels M, Kooiman PM, de Boer HA, Pieper FR,
1997b. Organization of the bovine casein gene lo-
cus. Mamm Genome 8: 148–152.
Rijnkels M, Elnitski L, Miller W, Rosen JM, 2003.
Multispecies comparative analysis of a mamma-
lian-specific genomic domain encoding secretory
proteins. Genomics 82: 417–432.
BAC clones containg bovine casein genes245
Figure 1. The CHORI-240 BAC contig containing the bovine CSN1S1, CSN2, STATH, CSN1S2 and CSN3 genes