Violence and leveraged community treatment for persons with mental disorders
ABSTRACT This article explores the link between violence and the practice of legally mandating treatment in the community or leveraging benefits from the social welfare system, such as subsidized housing and disability income support, to ensure adherence to treatment.
Data are presented from a survey of 1,011 persons with psychiatric disorders receiving treatment in public mental health service systems in five U.S. cities. Multinomial logit analysis was used to examine the association between physically assaultive behavior and experience of social welfare leverage, legal leverage, or both types of leverage, with the analyses controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics.
Across study sites, 18% to 21% of participants reported having committed violent acts in the past 6 months; 3% to 9% reported having used or made threats with a lethal weapon, committed sexual assault, or caused injury. About three-quarters of subjects who reported such serious violence also reported having experienced some form of leveraged treatment, compared with about one-half of subjects who did not report serious violence. Demographic and clinical factors that were independently associated with the likelihood of experiencing both types of leverage included younger age, male gender, poorer clinical functioning, more years in treatment, more frequent hospitalizations, higher frequency of outpatient visits, and negative attitudes toward medication adherence. Among participants who did not voluntarily take psychotropic medication, even minor assaultiveness was associated with having experienced legal leverage.
A combination of concerns about safety and treatment nonadherence may influence decisions by clinicians and judges to apply legal leverage.
SourceAvailable from: hsci.canterbury.ac.nz
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ABSTRACT: Objectives. In a large heterogeneous sample of adults with mental illnesses, we examined the 6-month prevalence and nature of community violence perpetration and victimization, as well as associations between these outcomes. Methods. Baseline data were pooled from 5 studies of adults with mental illnesses from across the United States (n = 4480); the studies took place from 1992 to 2007. The MacArthur Community Violence Screening Instrument was administered to all participants. Results. Prevalence of perpetration ranged from 11.0% to 43.4% across studies, with approximately one quarter (23.9%) of participants reporting violence. Prevalence of victimization was higher overall (30.9%), ranging from 17.0% to 56.6% across studies. Most violence (63.5%) was perpetrated in residential settings. The prevalence of violence-related physical injury was approximately 1 in 10 overall and 1 in 3 for those involved in violent incidents. There were strong associations between perpetration and victimization. Conclusions. Results provided further evidence that adults with mental illnesses experienced violent outcomes at high rates, and that they were more likely to be victims than perpetrators of community violence. There is a critical need for public health interventions designed to reduce violence in this vulnerable population.American Journal of Public Health 12/2014; 104(12):2342-2349. DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301680 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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