Sandhoff disease (SD) is an autosomal recessive GM2 gangliosidosis caused by the defect of lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase (Hex) beta-subunit gene associated with neurosomatic manifestations. Therapeutic effects of Hex subunit gene transduction have been examined on Sandhoff disease model mice (SD mice) produced by the allelic disruption of Hexb gene encoding the murine beta-subunit. We demonstrate here that elimination of GM2 ganglioside (GM2) accumulated in the fibroblastic cell line derived from SD mice (FSD) did not occur when the HEXB gene only was transfected. In contrast, a significant increase in the HexB (betabeta homodimer) activity toward neutral substrates, including GA2 (asialo-GM2) and oligosaccharides carrying the terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues at their non-reducing ends (GlcNAc-oligosaccharides) was observed. Immunoblotting with anti-human HexA (alphabeta heterodimer) serum after native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE) revealed that the human HEXB gene product could hardly form the chimeric HexA through associating with the murine alpha-subunit. However, co-introduction of the HEXA encoding the human alpha-subunit and HEXB genes caused significant corrective effect on the GM2 degradation by producing the human HexA. These results indicate that the recombinant human HexA could interspeciesly associate with the murine GM2 activator protein to degrade GM2 accumulated in the FSD cells. Thus, therapeutic effects of the recombinant human HexA isozyme but not human HEXB gene product could be evaluated by using the SD mice.
", and Sandhoff disease   . GM3 synthase deficiency is a neurological disorder recently identified among the Amish people in the United States caused by mutation of the GMs synthase gene, resulting in the absence of GM3 and its downstream metabolites. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gangliosides are a family of glycosphingolipids characterized by mono- or polysialic acid-containing oligosaccharides linked through 1,3- and 1,4-β glycosidic bonds with subtle differences in structure that are abundantly present in the central nervous systems of many living organisms. Their cellular surface expression and physiological malfunction are believed to be pathologically implicated in considerable neurological disorders, including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Recently, studies have tentatively elucidated that mental retardation or physical stagnation deteriorates as the physiological profile of gangliosides becomes progressively and distinctively abnormal during the development of these typical neurodegenerative syndromes. In this work, a reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assay using standard addition calibration for determination of GM2, GM3, GD2, and GD3 in human plasma has been developed and validated. The analytes and internal standard were extracted from human plasma using a simple protein precipitation procedure. Then the samples were analyzed by reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS/MS interfaced to mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization using a multiple reaction monitoring mode to obtain superior sensitivity and specificity. This assay was validated for extraction recovery, calibration linearity, precision, and accuracy. Our quick and sensitive method can be applied to monitor ganglioside levels in plasma from normal people and neurodegenerative patients.
"Construction of a vector plasmid and establishment of CHO cell lines stably expressing the modified HEXB. DNA fragments 1, 2, and 3 were amplified using primer sets as summarized in Supplementary Table S1, and the pCXN2-HEXB-Neo vector previously constructed in our laboratory,33 as a template, under the conditions indicated in Supplementary Table S1. Fragments 4 and 5 were amplified using sets of amplified fragments (fragment 1 and 2, and 2 and 3, respectively) as templates by two-step PCR. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop a novel enzyme replacement therapy for neurodegenerative Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) and Sandhoff disease (SD), which are caused by deficiency of β-hexosaminidase (Hex) A, we designed a genetically engineered HEXB encoding the chimeric human β-subunit containing partial amino acid sequence of the α-subunit by structure-based homology modeling. We succeeded in producing the modified HexB by a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line stably expressing the chimeric HEXB, which can degrade artificial anionic substrates and GM2 ganglioside in vitro, and also retain the wild-type (WT) HexB-like thermostability in the presence of plasma. The modified HexB was efficiently incorporated via cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor into fibroblasts derived from Tay-Sachs patients, and reduced the GM2 ganglioside accumulated in the cultured cells. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular administration of the modified HexB to Sandhoff mode mice restored the Hex activity in the brains, and reduced the GM2 ganglioside storage in the parenchyma. These results suggest that the intracerebroventricular enzyme replacement therapy involving the modified HexB should be more effective for Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff than that utilizing the HexA, especially as a low-antigenic enzyme replacement therapy for Tay-Sachs patients who have endogenous WT HexB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gangliosides (GGs) are considered as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets and agents. The goal of this study was to develop a tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the simultaneous measurement of both GM1 and GM2 gangliosides in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples in order to be able to determine their concentrations in patients with Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease and assess whether drugs or transplantation affect their concentrations.
An API-4000 tandem mass spectrometer equipped with TurboIonSpray source and Shimadzu HPLC system was employed to perform the analysis using isotope dilution with deuterium labeled internal standards. To a 1.5 mL conical plastic Eppendorf centrifuge tube, 40 microL of human CSF sample was added and mixed with 400 microL of internal standard solution for deproteinization. After centrifugation, 100 microL of supernatant was injected onto a C-18 column. After a 2.5 min wash, the switching valve was activated and the analytes were eluted from the column with a water/methanol gradient into the MS/MS system. Quantification by multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) analysis was performed in the negative mode.
The within-day coefficients of variation were <3% for GM1 and <2% for GM2 and the between-day coefficients of variation were <5% for both GM1 and GM2 at all concentrations tested. Accuracy ranged between 98% and 102% for both analytes. Good linearity was also obtained within the concentration range of 10-200 ng/mL (6.5-129.3 nmol/L) for GM1 and 5-100 ng/mL (3.6-72.3 nmol/L) for GM2 (r> or =0.995).
A new simple, accurate, and fast isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of GM1 and GM2 gangliosides in a small amount of human CSF. Concentrations were measured in "normal" CSF and in CSF from patients with Tay-Sachs disease.
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