A probable case of Irukandji syndrome in Thailand.

Department of Internal Medicine, Harbour Hospital and Institute for Tropical Diseases, Haringvliet 2, 3011 TD Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Journal of Travel Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.53). 07/2006; 13(4):240-3. DOI: 10.1111/j.1708-8305.2006.00041.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Irukandji syndrome is a jellyfish envenomation caused by Carukia barnesi or related jellyfish. In literature, the distribution of "Irukandji-like" syndromes is restricted to Australia. We report a case of probable Irukandji syndrome in Thailand. With this report, we hope to promote awareness to aid sting prevention and stimulate research.


Available from: Kenneth Daniel Winkel, May 30, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Irukandji Syndrome is caused by a potentially lethal jellyfish envenomation. Despite the low incidence, the condition is associated with possible life-threatening cardiovascular complications that make it difficult to manage in emergency departments. Managing Irukandji Syndrome is important for many emergency departments across Australia, particularly in North Queensland, the Northern Territory, and Western Australia. Methods The aim of this quality project was to identify current management, practices and nursing knowledge in the only emergency department in the regional city of Townsville, Queensland. This was undertaken via chart audit of all presentations over a 2-year period and a survey of nursing staff. Results Fifteen cases of Irukandji Syndrome were identified. Medical treatment options included use of opioids and magnesium for symptom control. Magnesium as a treatment option was used in 80% of cases. Chart audit indicated that in 20% of cases nursing management did not follow approved clinical guidelines for treatment and monitoring. The survey of nursing staff indicated a knowledge deficit with respect to the signs and symptoms of Irukandji Syndrome, standards of clinical monitoring, clinical assessment, and overall care provided. Conclusions To improve care of Irukandji Syndrome in the emergency department, in-service education, implementation of tendon reflex assessment for patients receiving magnesium therapy, and the development of a specific clinical documentation are recommended.
    Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal 08/2010; 13(3):78–88. DOI:10.1016/j.aenj.2010.04.002
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    ABSTRACT: Irukandji stings are a leading occupational health and safety issue for marine industries in tropical Australia and an emerging problem elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Their mild initial sting frequently results in debilitating illness, involving signs of sympathetic excess including excruciating pain, sweating, nausea and vomiting, hypertension and a feeling of impending doom; some cases also experience acute heart failure and pulmonary oedema. These jellyfish are typically small and nearly invisible, and their infestations are generally mysterious, making them scary to the general public, irresistible to the media, and disastrous for tourism. Research into these fascinating species has been largely driven by the medical profession and focused on treatment. Biological and ecological information is surprisingly sparse, and is scattered through grey literature or buried in dispersed publications, hampering understanding. Given that long-term climate forecasts tend toward conditions favourable to jellyfish ecology, that long-term legal forecasts tend toward increasing duty-of-care obligations, and that bioprospecting opportunities exist in the powerful Irukandji toxins, there is a clear need for information to help inform global research and robust management solutions. We synthesise and contextualise available information on Irukandji taxonomy, phylogeny, reproduction, vision, behaviour, feeding, distribution, seasonality, toxins, and safety. Despite Australia dominating the research in this area, there are probably well over 25 species worldwide that cause the syndrome and it is an understudied problem in the developing world. Major gaps in knowledge are identified for future research: our lack of clarity on the socio-economic impacts, and our need for time series and spatial surveys of the species, make this field particularly enticing.
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    05/2009, Degree: PhD, Supervisor: James Burnell