Controlling the elongation phase of transcription with P-TEFb.
ABSTRACT The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) is a cyclin-dependent kinase that controls the elongation phase of transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). This process is made possible by the reversal of effects of negative elongation factors that include NELF and DSIF. In complex organisms, elongation control is critical for the regulated expression of most genes. In those organisms, the function of P-TEFb is influenced negatively by HEXIM proteins and 7SK snRNA and positively by a variety of recruiting factors. Phylogenetic analyses of the components of the human elongation control machinery indicate that the number of mechanisms utilized to regulate P-TEFb function increased as organisms developed more complex developmental patterns.
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ABSTRACT: Prolyl isomerases (PPIases) induce conformational changes in target proteins•PPIases control transcription in eukaryotes at multiple levels.•PPIases regulate transcription factor stability, localization, and activity•PPIases coordinate binding of RNA-processing factors to RNA polymerase II•PPIases regulate recruitment and activity of histone modifying enzymesBiochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects 10/2014; · 3.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) pausing/termination shortly after initiation is a hallmark of gene regulation. Here, we show that negative elongation factor (NELF) interacts with Integrator complex subunits (INTScom), RNAPII and Spt5. The interaction between NELF and INTScom subunits is RNA and DNA independent. Using both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter and genome-wide analyses, we demonstrate that Integrator subunits specifically control NELF-mediated RNAPII pause/release at coding genes. The strength of RNAPII pausing is determined by the nature of the NELF-associated INTScom subunits. Interestingly, in addition to controlling RNAPII pause-release INTS11 catalytic subunit of the INTScom is required for RNAPII processivity. Finally, INTScom target genes are enriched in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transactivation response element/NELF binding element and in a 3' box sequence required for small nuclear RNA biogenesis. Revealing these unexpected functions of INTScom in regulating RNAPII pause-release and completion of mRNA synthesis of NELF-target genes will contribute to our understanding of the gene expression cycle.Nature Communications 11/2014; 5:5531. · 10.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HIV-1 TAR RNA is a two-helix bulge motif that plays a critical role in HIV viral replication and is an important drug target. However, efforts at designing TAR inhibitors have been challenged by its high degree of structural flexibility, which includes slow large-amplitude reorientations of its helices with respect to one another. Here, we use the recently introduced algorithm WExplore in combination with Euler angles to achieve unprecedented sampling of the TAR conformational ensemble. Our ensemble achieves similar agreement with experimental NMR data when compared with previous TAR computational studies, and is generated at a fraction of the computational cost. It clearly emerges from configuration space network analysis that the intermittent formation of the A22-U40 base pair acts as a reversible switch that enables sampling of interhelical conformations that would otherwise be topologically disallowed. We find that most previously determined ligand-bound structures are found in similar location in the network, and we use a sample-and-select approach to guide the construction of a set of novel conformations which can serve as the basis for future drug development efforts. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the utility of WExplore in combination with suitable order parameters as a method for exploring RNA conformational space.Nucleic Acids Research 10/2014; · 8.81 Impact Factor