Article

Identification and Herc5-mediated ISGylation of novel target proteins

Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (Impact Factor: 2.28). 10/2006; 348(2):473-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.07.076
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT ISG15, a protein containing two ubiquitin-like domains, is an interferon-stimulated gene product that functions in antiviral response and is conjugated to various cellular proteins (ISGylation) upon interferon stimulation. ISGylation occurs via a pathway similar to the pathway for ubiquitination that requires the sequential action of E1/E2/E3: the E1 (UBE1L), E2 (UbcH8), and E3 (Efp/Herc5) enzymes for ISGylation have been hitherto identified. In this study, we identified six novel candidate target proteins for ISGylation by a proteomic approach. Four candidate target proteins were demonstrated to be ISGylated in UBE1L- and UbcH8-dependent manners, and ISGylation of the respective target proteins was stimulated by Herc5. In addition, Herc5 was capable of binding with the respective target proteins. Thus, these results suggest that Herc5 functions as a general E3 ligase for protein ISGylation.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Tomoharu Takeuchi, Jul 03, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
181 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ISG15, the product of interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene 15, is the first identified ubiquitin-like protein, consisting of two ubiquitin-like domains. ISG15 is synthesized as a precursor in certain mammals and, therefore, needs to be processed to expose the C-terminal glycine residue before conjugation to target proteins. A set of three-step cascade enzymes, an E1 enzyme (UBE1L), an E2 enzyme (UbcH8), and one of several E3 ligases (e.g., EFP and HERC5), catalyzes ISG15 conjugation (ISGylation) of a specific protein. These enzymes are unique among the cascade enzymes for ubiquitin and other ubiquitin-like proteins in that all of them are induced by type I IFNs or other stimuli, such as exposure to viruses and lipopolysaccharide. Mass spectrometric analysis has led to the identification of several hundreds of candidate proteins that can be conjugated by ISG15. Some of them are type I IFN-induced proteins, such as PKR and RIG-I, and some are the key regulators that are involved in IFN signaling, such as JAK1 and STAT1, implicating the role of ISG15 and its conjugates in type I IFN-mediated innate immune responses. However, relatively little is known about the functional significance of ISG15 induction due to the lack of information on the consequences of its conjugation to target proteins. Here, we describe the recent progress made in exploring the biological function of ISG15 and its reversible modification of target proteins and thus in their implication in immune diseases.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2010; 1802(5):485-96. DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2010.02.006 · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Regulator of Chromosome Condensation 1 (RCC1) was identified over 20 years ago as a critical cell cycle regulator. By analyzing its amino acid sequence, RCC1 was found to consist of seven homologous repeats of 51-68 amino acid residues, which were later shown to adopt a seven-bladed beta-propeller fold. Since the initial identification of RCC1, a number of proteins have been discovered that contain one or more RCC1-like domains (RLDs). As we show here, these RCC1 superfamily proteins can be subdivided in five subgroups based on structural criteria. In recent years, a number of studies have been published regarding the functions of RCC1 superfamily proteins. From these studies, the emerging picture is that the RLD is a versatile domain which may perform many different functions, including guanine nucleotide exchange on small GTP-binding proteins, enzyme inhibition or interaction with proteins and lipids. Here, we review the available structural and functional data on RCC1 superfamily members, paying special attention to the human proteins and their involvement in disease.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2008; 1783(8):1467-79. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2008.03.015 · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The function of ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 and protein modification by ISG15 (ISGylation) has been an enigma for many years. Recently, the research of ISGylation has been accelerated by the identification of the enzymes involved in the ISG15 conjugation process. Our previous study identified the interferon inducible protein EFP as an ISG15 isopeptide ligase (E3) for 14-3-3sigma. In this study, we show that ISG15 E3 ligase EFP can be modified by ISG15. Two ubiquitin E2 conjugating enzymes, UbcH6 and UbcH8, can support ISGylation of EFP. The Ring-finger domain of EFP is important for its ISGylation. Full-length EFP can enhance the ISGylation of Ring domain deleted EFP, indicating EFP can function as an ISG15 E3 ligase for itself. We also determined the ISGylation site of EFP and created its ISGylation resistant mutant EFP-K117R. Compared to the wild-type EFP, this mutant further increases the ISGylation of 14-3-3sigma. Thus we propose that autoISGylation of EFP negatively regulates its ISG15 E3 ligase activity for 14-3-3sigma.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2007; 354(1):321-7. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.12.210 · 2.28 Impact Factor