We evaluated the relative contribution of the humoral and cellular arms of the immune response to bone marrow cells transplanted into sensitized recipients. We report here for the first time that humoral immunity contributes predominantly to allosensitization. Although the major role for nonmyeloablative conditioning is to control alloreactive host T cells in nonsensitized recipients, strikingly, none of the strategies directed primarily at T-cell alloreactivity enhanced engraftment in sensitized mice. In evaluating the mechanism behind this barrier, we found that humoral immunity plays a critical role in the rejection of allogeneic marrow in sensitized recipients. Adoptive transfer of as little as 25 microL serum from sensitized mice abrogated engraftment in secondary naive recipients. With the use of microMT mice as recipients, we found that T-cell-mediated immunity plays a secondary but still significant role in allorejection. Targeting of T cells in sensitized B-cell-deficient microMT mice enhanced alloengraftment. Moreover, both T- and B-cell tolerance were achieved in sensitized recipients when allochimerism was established, as evidenced by the acceptance of second donor skin grafts and loss of circulating donor-specific Abs. These findings have important implications for the management of sensitized transplant recipients and for xenotransplantation in which B-cell reactivity is a predominant barrier.
"The major concern in delayed tolerance induction is that the recipient may become sensitized to donor alloantigens as a result of a prior transplant and may be more prone to BMC rejection [83, 84]. More conditioning and a higher dose of donor BMC are required for engraftment in sensitized recipients as preformed antidonor antibodies contribute as a dominant barrier for the survival of donor cells [85–87]. However, they found that the continuous immunosuppression after VCA and before BMT prevented the generation of antidonor antibodies and effector/memory T cells . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Successful hand and face transplantation in the last decade has firmly established the field of vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA). The experience in VCA has thus far been very similar to solid organ transplantation in terms of the morbidity associated with long-term immunosuppression. The unique immunological features of VCA such as split tolerance and resistance to chronic rejection are being investigated. Simultaneously there has been laboratory work studying tolerogenic protocols in animal VCA models. In order to optimize VCA outcomes, translational studies are needed to develop less toxic immunosuppression and possibly achieve donor-specific tolerance. This article reviews the immunology, animal models, mixed chimerism & tolerance induction in VCA and the direction of future research to enable better understanding and wider application of VCA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of inhibitory antibodies directed against factor VIII (fVIII) remains the most significant clinical complication associated with the treatment of hemophilia A. Recently, we demonstrated that transplantation of genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells containing a high-expression porcine fVIII transgene promoted sustained high-level fVIII expression in naïve hemophilia A mice. In the current study, a similar gene transfer strategy was tested in hemophilia A mice harboring clinically significant anti-human factor VIII (anti-hfVIII) inhibitory antibody titers. Although the majority of mice contained circulating antibodies that cross-reacted with and inhibited porcine fVIII activity, transplantation of genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells containing a porcine fVIII transgene into myeloablated hemophilia A mice induced high-level fVIII activity. Furthermore, anti-hfVIII antibody titers steadily declined throughout the course of the study. However, non-myeloablative transplantation conditioning resulted in only partial success. No correlation between pre-transplantation antibody titers and post-transplantation fVIII activity levels or donor cell engraftment was observed. These data suggest that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-based gene therapy incorporating a high-expression porcine fVIII transgene can be utilized successfully to treat hemophilia A patients harboring anti-hfVIII inhibitors.
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