Risk of diabetes mellitus associated with atypical antipsychotic use among patients with bipolar disorder: A retrospective, population-based, case-control study.
ABSTRACT Drug-induced diabetes onset has not been adequately quantified in patients with bipolar disorder, although atypical antipsychotics have been widely used as new mood stabilizers.
To quantify the association between atypical antipsychotics and diabetes mellitus.
A retrospective, population-based, case-control study was conducted using the medical claims database from U.S. managed care organizations from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2002. Nine hundred twenty incident cases of diabetes were matched with 5258 controls by age, sex, and bipolar index month and year. Diabetes cases were identified by either diagnosis of ICD-9 codes or diabetic medications. Patients with diabetes had a minimum 3-month exposure to any medications or at least 3 prescriptions for their bipolar or comorbidity treatment. Cox proportional hazard regression was conducted to assess the risk of diabetes associated with antipsychotic use.
Of 920 cases, 41% received atypical antipsychotics (e.g., olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone, clozapine) and 34% received conventional antipsychotics. Compared to patients receiving conventional antipsychotics, the risk of diabetes was greatest among patients taking clozapine (hazard ratio [HR] = 7.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7 to 28.9), risperidone (HR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.8 to 4.2), olanzapine (HR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.7 to 3.8), and quetiapine (HR = 1.8, 95% CI =1.4 to 2.4), with controlling covariates of age; sex; duration of follow-up; use of lithium, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, or concomitant drugs; and psychiatric and medical comorbidities.
Development or exacerbation of diabetes mellitus is associated with antipsychotic use in bipolar patients. Metabolic complications are a major issue in patients receiving antipsychotic therapy. Thus, the propensity of an antipsychotic to induce diabetes should be a consideration when selecting an agent for patients with bipolar disorder.
SourceAvailable from: scielo.clRevista medica de Chile 01/2009; 137(1). DOI:10.4067/S0034-98872009000100017 · 0.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Several second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) received FDA approval for bipolar disorder in the 2000s. Although efficacious, they have been costly and may cause significant side effects. Little is known about the factors associated with prescribers¿ decisions to initiate SGA prescriptions for this condition.Methods We gathered administrative data from the Department of Veterans Affairs on 170,713 patients with bipolar disorder between fiscal years 2003¿2010. Patients without a prior history of taking SGAs were considered eligible for SGA initiation during the study (n =126,556). Generalized estimating equations identified demographic, clinical, and comorbidity variables associated with initiation of an SGA prescription on a month-by-month basis.ResultsWhile the number of patients with bipolar disorder using SGAs nearly doubled between 2003 and 2010, analyses controlling for patient characteristics and the rise in the bipolar population revealed a 1.2% annual decline in SGA initiation during this period. Most medical comorbidities were only modestly associated with overall SGA initiation, although significant differences emerged among individual SGAs. Several markers of patient severity predicted SGA initiation, including previous hospitalizations, psychotic features, and a history of other antimanic prescriptions; these severity markers became less firmly linked to SGA initiation over time. Providers in the South were somewhat more likely to initiate SGA treatment.Conclusions The number of veterans with bipolar disorder prescribed SGAs is rising steadily, but this increase appears primarily driven by a corresponding increase in the bipolar population. Month-by-month analyses revealed that higher illness severity predicted SGA initiation, but that this association may be weakening over time.BMC Psychiatry 11/2014; 14(1):339. DOI:10.1186/s12888-014-0339-z · 2.24 Impact Factor