The role of conformation on electron capture dissociation of ubiquitin.

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1460, USA.
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry (Impact Factor: 3.59). 11/2006; 17(10):1469-79. DOI: 10.1016/j.jasms.2006.06.027
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Effects of protein conformation on electron capture dissociation (ECD) were investigated using high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Under the conditions of these experiments, the electron capture efficiency of ubiquitin 6+ formed from three different solution compositions differs significantly, ranging from 51 +/- 7% for ions formed from an acidified water/methanol solution to 88 +/- 2% for ions formed from a buffered aqueous solution. This result clearly indicates that these protein ions retain a memory of their solution-phase structure and that conformational differences can be probed in an ECD experiment. Multiple conformers for the 7+ and 8+ charge states of ubiquitin were separated using FAIMS. ECD spectra of conformer selected ions of the same charge states differ both in electron capture efficiency and in the fragment ion intensities. Conformers of a given charge state that have smaller collisional cross sections can have either a larger or smaller electron capture efficiency. A greater electron capture efficiency was observed for ubiquitin 6+ that has the same collisional cross section as one ubiquitin 7+ conformer, despite the lower charge state. These results indicate that the shape of the molecule can have a greater effect on electron capture efficiency than either collisional cross section or charge state alone. The cleavage locations of different conformers of a given charge state were the same indicating that the presence of different conformers in the gas phase is not due to difference in where charges are located, but rather reflect conformational differences most likely originating from solution. Small neutral losses observed from the singly- and doubly-reduced ubiquitin 6+ do not show a temperature dependence to their formation, consistent with these ions being formed by nonergodic processes.

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    ABSTRACT: Electrothermal supercharging of protein ions formed by electrospray ionization from buffered aqueous solutions results in significant increases to both the maximum and average charge states compared to native mass spectrometry in which ions are formed from the same solutions but with lower spray potentials. For eight of the nine proteins investigated, the maximum charge states of protonated ions formed from native solutions with electrothermal supercharging is greater than those obtained from conventional denaturing solutions consisting of water/methanol/acid, although the average charging is slightly lower owing to contributions of small populations of more folded low charge-state structures. Under these conditions, electrothermal supercharging is slightly less effective for anions than for cations. Equivalent sequence coverage (80%) is obtained with electron transfer dissociation of the same high charge-state ion of cytochrome c formed by electrothermal supercharging from native solutions and from denaturing solutions. Electrothermal supercharging should be advantageous for combining structural studies of proteins in native environments with mass spectrometers that have limited high m/z capabilities and for significantly improving tandem mass spectrometry performance for protein ions formed from solutions in which the molecules have native structures and activities.
    Analytical Chemistry 11/2012; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is commonly employed in ion traps utilizing rf fields that facilitate efficient electron transfer reactions. Here, we explore performing ETD in the HCD collision cell on an Orbitrap Velos instrument by applying a static DC gradient axially to the rods. This gradient enables simultaneous three dimensional, charge sign independent, trapping of cations and anions, initiating electron transfer reactions in the center of the HCD cell where oppositely charged ions clouds overlap. Here, we evaluate this mode of operation for a number of tryptic peptide populations and the top-down sequence analysis of ubiquitin. Our preliminary data show that performing ETD in the HCD cell provides similar fragmentation as ion trap-ETD but requires further optimization to match performance of ion trap-ETD.
    Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 04/2013; · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peptide and protein characterization by mass spectrometry (MS) relies on their dissociation in the gas phase into specific fragments whose mass values can be aligned as 'mass ladders' to provide sequence information and to localize possible post-translational modifications. The most common dissociation method involves slow heating of even-electron (M+nH) (n+) ions from electrospray ionization by energetic collisions with inert gas, and cleavage of amide backbone bonds. More recently, dissociation methods based on electron capture or transfer were found to provide far more extensive sequence coverage through unselective cleavage of backbone N-Cα bonds. As another important feature of electron capture dissociation (ECD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD), their unique unimolecular radical ion chemistry generally preserves labile posttranslational modifications such as glycosylation and phosphorylation. Moreover, it was postulated that disulfide bond cleavage is preferred over backbone cleavage, and that capture of a single electron can break both a backbone and a disulfide bond, or even two disulfide bonds between two peptide chains. However, the proposal of preferential disulfide bond cleavage in ECD or ETD has recently been debated. The experimental data presented here reveal that the mechanism of protein disulfide bond cleavage is much more intricate than previously anticipated.
    ChemistryOpen. 12/2012; 1(6).


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