Age and QT variability index during free breathing, controlled breathing and tilt in patients with chronic heart failure and healthy control subjects.

Dipartimento di Scienze dell'Invecchiamento, Policlinico Umberto I, Universitá La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
Translational Research (Impact Factor: 3.49). 08/2006; 148(2):72-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.trsl.2006.02.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The QT variability index (QTVI) indicates temporal dispersion in myocardial repolarization, and a high QTVI is associated with a propensity for sudden death from malignant ventricular arrhythmias in subjects at high risk. In this study, the authors assessed the effects of free breathing, controlled breathing, and sympathetic stress (tilt) on the QTVI in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and healthy control subjects. The authors also examined the influence of age on the same variables. To obtain normative data, they calculated 95% confidence intervals for healthy subjects grouped according to age. Under all experimental conditions, the QTVI was larger in the CHF group overall and in the age subsets than in controls. In patients and controls, the QTVI increased significantly during tilt, although no differences were found between the QTVI measured during free and controlled breathing. In healthy controls, the following variables correlated significantly with the QTVI: age and baseline heart rate (P < 0.001). In patients with CHF, aging had no influence on the QTVI. Conclusion: Age, sympathetic stress, and CHF all tend to increase the QTVI and could potentially induce sudden death. Further studies should assess the usefulness of the QTVI as a marker predicting sudden cardiac death under the various conditions of risk.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thrombocytopenia (TC) following a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been associated not only with hemorrhagic, but also with ischemic outcomes. The purpose of this study was to re-examine the relationship of TC with ischemic events at a 1-year follow-up, and investigate the possible associations. Methods and Results We studied a real-world, unselected population of ischemic patients undergoing PCI, totaling 861 patients-year, and divided into two groups: with TC (delta platelet count ≥25% from baseline to post-PCI during the hospital admission) and without TC. Compared with patients without TC, patients with TC had a higher and earlier incidence of both hemorrhagic and ischemic events. In them, the use of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) was ten-fold higher. In Kaplan-Meier curves assessing the contribution of both TC and IABP to oucome, IABP was an univariate detrimental factor additive to the role of TC. In a forced Cox model, the relative decline (delta) in platelet count (p=0.05) and the use of IABP (p=0.0001) were both associated with ischemic outcomes. After excluding all patients with IABP, the delta platelet count was no longer significantly associated with ischemic outcomes (p=0.66). After excluding all patients with shock and all those undergone thrombolysis, there was still a relationship (p=0.0042) between the delta platelet count and ischemic events. In this patient population the use of IABP, but not thrombocytopenia per se, is a possible primary cause of worse ischemic outcomes.
    Vascular Pharmacology 11/2013; · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence from a canine experimental acute myocardial infarction (MI) model shows that until the seventh week after MI the relationship between stellate ganglionic nerve and vagal nerve activities (SGNA/VNA) progressively increases. We evaluated how autonomic nervous system activity influences temporal myocardial repolarization dispersion at this period. We analyzed autonomic nerve activity as well as QT and RR variability from recordings previously obtained in 9 dogs. From a total 48 short-term electrocardiographic segments, 24 recorded before and 24 seven weeks after experimentally-induced MI, we obtained three indices of temporal myocardial repolarization dispersion: QTe (from q wave T to wave end), QTp (from q wave to T wave peak) and Te (from T wave peak to T wave end) variability index (QTeVI, QTpVI, TeVI). We also performed a heart rate variability power spectral analysis on the same segments. After MI, all the QT variables increased QTeVI (median [interquartile range]) (from -1.76[0.82] to -1.32[0.68]), QTeVI (from -1.90[1.01] to -1.45[0.78]) and TeVI (from -0.72[0.67] to -0.22[1.00]), whereas all RR spectral indexes decreased (p<0.001 for all). Distinct circadian rhythms in QTeVI (p<0.05,) QTpVI (p<0.001) and TeVI (p<0.05) appeared after MI with circadian variations resembling that of SGNA/VNA. The morning QTpVI and TeVI acrophases approached the SGNA/VNA acrophase. Conversely, the evening QTeVI acrophase coincided with another SGNA/VNA peak. After MI, regression analysis detected a positive relationship between SGNA/VNA and TeVI (R(2): 0.077; β: 0.278; p< 0.001). Temporal myocardial repolarization dispersion shows a circadian variation after MI reaching its peak at a time when sympathetic is highest and vagal activity lowest.
    Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 10/2013; · 4.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study assesses complexity of the cardiac control directed to the sinus node and to ventricles in long QT syndrome type 1 (LQT1) patients with KCNQ1-A341V mutation. Complexity was assessed via refined multiscale entropy (RMSE) computed over the beat-to-beat variability series of heart period (HP) and QT interval. HP and QT interval were approximated respectively as the temporal distance between two consecutive R-wave peaks and between the R-wave apex and T-wave end. Both measures were automatically taken from 24-hour electrocardiographic Holter traces recorded during daily activities in non mutation carriers (NMCs, n = 14) and mutation carriers (MCs, n = 34) belonging to a South African LQT1 founder population. The MC group was divided into asymptomatic (ASYMP, n = 11) and symptomatic (SYMP, n = 23) patients according to the symptom severity. Analyses were carried out during daytime (DAY, from 2PM to 6PM) and nighttime (NIGHT, from 12PM to 4AM) off and on beta-adrenergic blockade (BBoff and BBon). We found that the complexity of the HP variability at short time scale was under vagal control, being significantly increased during NIGHT and BBon both in ASYMP and SYMP groups, while the complexity of both HP and QT variability at long time scales was under sympathetic control, being smaller during NIGHT and BBon in SYMP subjects. Complexity indexes at long time scales in ASYMP individuals were smaller than those in SYMP ones regardless of therapy (i.e. BBoff or BBon), thus suggesting that a reduced complexity of the sympathetic regulation is protective in ASYMP individuals. RMSE analysis of HP and QT interval variability derived from routine 24-hour electrocardiographic Holter recordings might provide additional insights into the physiology of the cardiac control and might be fruitfully exploited to improve risk stratification in LQT1 population.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e93808. · 3.73 Impact Factor