Oncological implications of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) expression.
ABSTRACT Solid tumours contain regions of hypoxia, which may be a prognostic indicator and determinant of malignant progression, metastatic development and chemoradio-resistance. The degree of intra-tumoural hypoxia has been shown to be positively correlated with the expression of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1. HIF-1 is composed of 2 sub-units, namely HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta. The production of hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha has been identified as a key element in allowing cells to adapt and survive in a hostile hypoxic environment via a variety of pathways. HIF-1alpha is stabilised by hypoxia at the protein level, and also by the oncogenes HER2neu, v-src and ras. There are over 60 target genes for HIF-1, many of which are activated in cancers in comparison to equivalent normal tissues. Chemotherapeutic modulation of HIF-1 pathways has shown promise for patients with chemo-radio resistant or recurrent tumours in Phase II clinical trials. We herein review the existing literature on hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha, particularly its role in carcinogenesis and clinical implications of its over-expression.
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia is a condition in which an area of the body or a tissue is deprived of sufficient supply of oxygen. The lack of nutrients in a hypoxic tissue generally causes apoptosis but some cells are able to adapt to this hypoxic environment and resist apoptosis. This adaptation occurs as a result of gene activation. Hypoxia is a characteristic feature of many cancers and is the stimulus for overexpression of HIF-1α - a basic loop-helix PAS protein family subunit of HIF, which allows the cell to adapt and survive in hostile environment. The presence of hypoxia and HIF-1α is correlated with an increased risk of metastasis and techniques that can inhibit hypoxia inducible factor may be instrumental in finding a cure for cancer.Online Journal of Health & Allied Sciences. 01/2008;
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ABSTRACT: In the Western world, endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common malignant tumor of the female genital tract. Solid tumors like EC outgrow their vasculature resulting in hypoxia. Tumor hypoxia is important because it renders an aggressive phenotype and leads to radio- and chemo-therapy resistance. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) plays an essential role in the adaptive cellular response to hypoxia and is associated with poor clinical outcome in EC. Therefore, HIF-1 could be an attractive therapeutic target. Selective HIF-1 inhibitors have not been identified. A number of nonselective inhibitors which target signaling pathways upstream or downstream HIF-1 are known to decrease HIF-1alpha protein levels. In clinical trials for the treatment of advanced and/or recurrent EC are the topoisomerase I inhibitor Topotecan, mTOR-inhibitor Rapamycin, and angiogenesis inhibitor Bevacizumab. Preliminary data shows encouraging results for these agents. Further work is needed to identify selective HIF-1 inhibitors and to translate these into clinical trials.Obstetrics and Gynecology International 01/2010; 2010:580971.
Article: A combined pharmacokinetic model for the hypoxia-targeted prodrug PR-104A in humans, dogs, rats and mice predicts species differences in clearance and toxicity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PR-104 is a phosphate ester that is systemically converted to the corresponding alcohol PR-104A. The latter is activated by nitroreduction in tumours to cytotoxic DNA cross-linking metabolites. Here, we report a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for PR-104 and PR-104A in non-human species and in humans. A compartmental model was used to fit plasma PR-104 and PR-104A concentration-time data after intravenous (i.v.) dosing of humans, Beagle dogs, Sprague-Dawley rats and CD-1 nude mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) PR-104 and i.v. PR-104A dosing of mice was also investigated. Protein binding was measured in plasma from each species. Unbound drug clearances and volumes were scaled allometrically. A two-compartment model described the disposition of PR-104 and PR-104A in all four species. PR-104 was cleared rapidly by first-order (mice, rats, dogs) or mixed-order (humans) metabolism to PR-104A in the central compartment. The estimated unbound human clearance of PR104A was 211 L/h/70 kg, with a steady state unbound volume of 105 L/70 kg. The size equivalent unbound PR-104A clearance was 2.5 times faster in dogs, 0.78 times slower in rats and 0.63 times slower in mice, which may reflect reported species differences in PR-104A O-glucuronidation. The PK model demonstrates faster size equivalent clearance of PR-104A in dogs and humans than rodents. Dose-limiting myelotoxicity restricts the exposure of PR-104A in humans to approximately 25% of that achievable in mice.Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 05/2011; 67(5):1145-55. · 2.83 Impact Factor