Functions of Vitamin D, Retinoic Acid, and Dexamethasone in Mouse Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Cells
ABSTRACT Adipose-derived mesenchymal cells (AMCs) offer great promise for tissue engineering of bone. Previously, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, retinoic acid (RA), and dexamethasone had been shown to promote osteogenesis in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (BMSCs). To study the osteogenic characteristics of mouse AMCs, we applied these 3 hormones alone and in combination to the AMCs and examined markers of osteogenic differentiation. Interestingly, vitamin D and RA demonstrated a consistent, dose-dependent enhancement of osteogenesis and upregulated osteoblast specific markers including osteopontin and osteocalcin. However, in AMCs, dexamethasone clearly inhibited osteogenic differentiation in a dose dependent fashion and greatly increased the adipogenic marker peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAgamma). In summary, we show in vitro that vitamin D and RA are potential candidates to serve as enhancers of osteogenesis of AMCs and may be incorporated into future cell-based strategies for bone tissue engineering.
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- "Bars indicate 100 μm.                                                      "
ABSTRACT: More effective techniques should be employed for isolation of human mesenchymal stromal cells derived from adipose tissue (ADSC), seeking to make adipose tissue biopsies smaller in volume and thus less invasive. In this study, we compared properties of ADSC isolated by several different methods from the same samples of adipose tissue in order to enhance yields of potential ADSC. The mature adipocyte fraction was investigated using the ceiling culture method, including both ceiling and bottom cell fractions, and the control culture method with standard amount of medium. The results were also compared using the stromal vascular fraction from the same samples. The most efficient was the bottom cell population isolated from the mature adipocyte fraction by ceiling culture method. These cells readily differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages and, similar to stromal vascular fraction cells, displayed high proliferation potential. Cultures of mature adipocyte fractions with standard amount of medium were considerably less effective. Mature adipocyte fractions yields large quantities of adipose-derived stem cells that have properties comparable with stromal vascular fraction cells suitable for tissue regeneration, especially when only small biopsies can be taken.Central European Journal of Biology 02/2010; 5(1):47-58. DOI:10.2478/s11535-009-0073-6 · 0.63 Impact Factor
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- "ASC are readily accessible, easily expandable and have low donor site morbidity; therefore, applying ASC as an alternative cell source for cartilage repair is an area of intense interest   . Most of our current research is focusing on studying the chondrogenic and osteogenic capacities of these cells      . Because of the low proliferation capability of explanted chondrocytes our group and others are investigating several in vitro chondrogenesis differentiation systems using ASC. "
ABSTRACT: Cartilage is an avascular tissue with only a limited potential to heal and chondrocytes in vitro have poor proliferative capacity. Recently, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASC) have demonstrated a great potential for application to tissue engineering due to their ability to differentiate into cartilage, bone, and fat. In this study, we have utilized a high density three-dimensional (3D) micromass model system of early chondrogenesis with ASC. The material properties of these micromasses showed a significant increase in dynamic and static elastic modulus during the early chondrogenic differentiation process. These data suggest that the 3D micromass culture system represents an in vitro model of early chondrogenesis with dynamic cell signaling interactions associated with the mechanical properties of chondrocyte differentiation.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2007; 359(2):311-6. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.05.098 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Future cell-based therapies such as tissue engineering will benefit from a source of autologous pluripotent stem cells. For mesodermal tissue engineering, one such source of cells is the bone marrow stroma. The bone marrow compartment contains several cell populations, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are capable of differentiating into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic cells. However, autologous bone marrow procurement has potential limitations. An alternate source of autologous adult stem cells that is obtainable in large quantities, under local anesthesia, with minimal discomfort would be advantageous. In this study, we determined if a population of stem cells could be isolated from human adipose tissue. Human adipose tissue, obtained by suction-assisted lipectomy (i.e., liposuction), was processed to obtain a fibroblast-like population of cells or a processed lipoaspirate (PLA). These PLA cells can be maintained in vitro for extended periods with stable population doubling and low levels of senescence. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry show that the majority of PLA cells are of mesodermal or mesenchymal origin with low levels of contaminating pericytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Finally, PLA cells differentiate in vitro into adipogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic, and osteogenic cells in the presence of lineage-specific induction factors. In conclusion, the data support the hypothesis that a human lipoaspirate contains multipotent cells and may represent an alternative stem cell source to bone marrow-derived MSCs.Tissue Engineering 05/2001; 7(2):211-28. DOI:10.1089/107632701300062859 · 4.25 Impact Factor