The potential of P1 site alterations in peptidomimetic protease inhibitors as suggested by virtual screening and explored by the use of C-C-coupling reagents.
ABSTRACT A synthetic concept is presented that allows the construction of peptide isostere libraries through polymer-supported C-acylation reactions. A phosphorane linker reagent is used as a carbanion equivalent; by employing MSNT as a coupling reagent, the C-acylation can be conducted without racemization. Diastereoselective reduction was effected with L-selectride. The reagent linker allows the preparation of a norstatine library with full variation of the isosteric positions including the P1 side chain that addresses the protease S1 pocket. Therefore, the concept was employed to investigate the P1 site specificity of peptide isostere inhibitors systematically. The S1 pocket of several aspartic proteases including plasmepsin II and cathepsin D was modeled and docked with approximately 500 amino acid side chains. Inspired by this virtual screen, a P1 site mutation library was designed, synthesized, and screened against three aspartic proteases (plasmepsin II, HIV protease, and cathepsin D). The potency of norstatine inhibitors was found to depend strongly on the P1 substituent. Large, hydrophobic residues such as biphenyl, 4-bromophenyl, and 4-nitrophenyl enhanced the inhibitory activity (IC50) by up to 70-fold against plasmepsin II. In addition, P1 variation introduced significant selectivity, as up to 9-fold greater activity was found against plasmepsin II relative to human cathepsin D. The active P1 site residues did not fit into the crystal structure; however, molecular dynamics simulation suggested a possible alternative binding mode.
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ABSTRACT: Netherton syndrome is caused by loss-of-function mutations in SPINK5 encoding the Kazal-type inhibitor LEKTI-1 leading to dysregulation of proteolytic cascades involving several kallikreins. We used both structure-based and ligand-based virtual screening computations to identify commercially available non-covalent inhibitors of human kallikrein 5 (hK5), a serine protease (trypsin-like) that plays a central role in the initiation of the molecular cascades leading to the Netherton syndrome phenotype. The efficacy and mechanism of inhibition of the identified new families of organic compounds were analyzed not only for hK5 but also on other proteases implicated in the cascades (hK7, hK14 and matriptase). These inhibitors are nontoxic on healthy human keratinocytes and are structurally different from traditional serine protease inhibitors validating their potential utility as initial hits to control proteolytic disorders observed in dermatological pathologies such as Netherton syndrome.European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2013; 70C:661-668. · 3.43 Impact Factor
- Angewandte Chemie 01/2008; 120(17):3319-3323.
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ABSTRACT: A polymer-supported route for the synthesis of sphingosine derivatives is presented based on the C-acylation of polymeric phosphoranylidene acetates with an Fmoc-protected amino acid. The approach enables the flexible variation of the sphingosine tail through a deprotection-decarboxylation sequence followed by E-selective Wittig olefination cleavage. d-Erythro-sphingosine analogs have been synthesized by diastereoselective reduction of the keto group employing LiAlH(O-tBu)3 as reducing agent. The effect of ceramides and keto-ceramides on the proliferation of three cancer cell lines HEP G-2, PC-12 and HL-60 was investigated and a ceramide containing an aromatic sphingosine tail was identified as being most active.Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 07/2014; · 2.90 Impact Factor