Posterior cervical screw placement without image guidance: a safe and reliable practice.
ABSTRACT The use of lateral mass screws for posterior cervical fixation has become widespread. It allows for stable fixation in the absence of the posterior elements and confers immediate stability. Lateral mass fixation has been shown to impart equal or greater biomechanical stability when compared to posterior interosseous wiring or anterior plating. The utilization of intraoperative fluoroscopy to guide screw placement has been recommended previously and is considered routine practice in many centers. This prospective study shows that lateral mass screws can be safely positioned without intraoperative fluoroscopy. The procedure is both safe and effective, provided that the operator has a thorough understanding of lateral mass anatomy coupled with careful adherence to the established guidelines for screw positioning. Exposure to radiation is reduced and time taken for operation can be shortened.
- Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques 03/2007; 20(1):109. DOI:10.1097/01.bsd.0000211289.44637.dd · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vertebral artery (VA) injury can be a catastrophic iatrogenic complication of cervical spine surgery. Although the incidence is rare, it has serious consequences including fistulas, pseudoaneurysm, cerebral ischemia, and death. It is therefore imperative to be familiar with the anatomy and the instrumentation techniques when performing anterior or posterior cervical spine surgeries. To provide a review of VA injury during common anterior and posterior cervical spine procedures with an evaluation of the surgical anatomy, management, and prevention of this injury. Comprehensive literature review. A systematic review of Medline for articles related to VA injury in cervical spine surgery was conducted up to and including journal articles published in 2007. The literature was then reviewed and summarized. Overall, the risk of VA injury during cervical spine surgery is low. In anterior cervical procedures, lateral dissection puts the VA at the most risk, so sound anatomical knowledge and constant reference to the midline are mandatory during dissection. With the development and rise in popularity of posterior cervical stabilization and instrumentation, recognition of the dangers of posterior drilling and insertion of transarticular screws and pedicle screws is important. Anomalous vertebral anatomy increases the risk of injury and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography (CT) scans should be carefully reviewed. When the VA is injured, steps should be taken to control local bleeding. Permanent occlusion or ligation should only be attempted if it is known that the contralateral VA is capable of providing adequate collateral circulation. With the advent of endovascular repair, this treatment option can be considered when a VA injury is encountered. VA injury during cervical spine surgery is a rare but serious complication. It can be prevented by careful review of preoperative imaging studies, having a sound anatomical knowledge and paying attention to surgical landmarks intraoperatively. When a VA injury occurs, prompt recognition and management are important.The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society 06/2008; 9(1):70-6. DOI:10.1016/j.spinee.2008.03.006 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our purpose of this study is to compare insertion angles and screw lengths from Roy-Camille, Magerl, and our designed method for cervical lateral mass screw fixation in the Korean population by quantitative measurement of reformatted two dimensional (2D) computed tomography (CT) images. We selected thirty Korean patients who were evaluated with thin section CT scans and reconstruction program to obtain reformatted 2D-CT images of the transversal plane passing the cranio-caudal angle using three different techniques. We measured the minimum angle to avoid vertebral artery (VA) injury, the ideal angle and depth for bicortical screwing of cervical lateral mass. Morphometric measurements of the lateral masses from C3-C7 were also taken. In all three techniques, the mean safety angles from the VA were less than 8 degrees and the necessary depth of the screw was about 14 mm for safety to the VA and for the bicortical purchase. In our designed technique, the mean beta angles of each level from C3 to C7 were 29.0, 29.8, 29.5, 26.3, and 23.9 degrees, respectively. Results of this study and data from the literature indicate that differences may exist between the Korean and Western people in the length and angle for ideal lateral mass screw fixation. In addition, our technique needs further cadaveric and clinical study for safety and efficacy for being performed as alternative method for cervical lateral mass fixation.Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 10/2008; 44(3):124-30. DOI:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.3.124 · 0.52 Impact Factor