Immunohistochemical distribution of amyloid deposits in 25 cows diagnosed with systemic AA amyloidosis.
ABSTRACT The distribution of amyloid deposits was histopathologically and immunohistochemically examined in 25 cows aged 5 to 10 years that had been diagnosed with systemic AA amyloidosis. This examination revealed that amyloid deposits were also present in the hypophysis, ovary, uterus, mammary gland and skeletal muscle, in addition to the liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, gastrointestinal mucosa, heart, lung and lymph nodes. The examined cows tended to have chronic inflammations, including chronic mastitis (six cases) or chronic pneumonia (four cases), which is thought of as a causative agent of AA amyloidosis. In contrast, five cases did not exhibit any chronic inflammation.
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ABSTRACT: Pathologic amyloid accumulates in the CNS or in peripheral organs, yet the mechanism underlying the targeting of systemic amyloid deposits is unclear. Serum amyloid A (SAA) 1 and 2 are produced predominantly by the liver and form amyloid most commonly in the spleen, liver, and kidney. In contrast, SAA3 is produced primarily extrahepatically and has no causal link to amyloid formation. Here, we identified 8 amyloidosis cases with amyloid composed of SAA3 expanding the uterine wall of goats with near-term fetuses. Uterine amyloid accumulated in the endometrium, only at the site of placental attachment, compromising maternal-fetal gas and nutrient exchange and leading to fetal ischemia and death. No other organ contained amyloid. SAA3 mRNA levels in the uterine endometrium were as high as SAA2 in the liver, yet mass spectrometry of the insoluble uterine peptides identified SAA3 as the predominant protein, and not SAA1 or SAA2. These findings suggest that high local SAA3 production led to deposition at this unusual site. Although amyloid A (AA) amyloid deposits typically consist of an N-terminal fragment of SAA1 or SAA2, here, abundant C-terminal peptides indicated that the uterine amyloid was largely composed of full-length SAA3. The exclusive deposition of SAA3 amyloid in the uterus, together with elevated uterine SAA3 transcripts, suggests that the uterine amyloid deposits were due to locally produced SAA3. This is the first report of SAA3 as a cause of amyloidosis and of AA amyloid deposited exclusively in the uterus.-Gaffney, P. M., Barr, B., Rowe, J. D., Bett, C., Drygiannakis, I., Giannitti, F., Trejo, M., Ghassemian, M., Martin, P., Masliah, E., Sigurdson, C. J. Protein profiling of isolated uterine AA amyloidosis causing fetal death in goats. © FASEB.The FASEB Journal 11/2014; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In bovine amyloid protein A (AA) amyloidosis, amyloid deposits are typically observed in the kidney and spleen at necropsy. To determine the distribution of amyloid deposits in cows affected with AA amyloidosis, we examined organs known to be sites of amyloid deposits that are also processed for human consumption in 14 cows: 11 with typical clinical symptoms (typical amyloidosis) and three with no typical clinical symptoms (atypical amyloidosis). We found unusually high amounts of amyloid deposits in the tongue and other organs in all 14 cows regardless of the presence or absence of clinical amyloidosis symptoms. Cows with typical amyloidosis had heavier amyloid deposits in the spleen and renal glomeruli than cows with atypical amyloidosis. From clinical symptoms and histological examinations, we found that cows with typical and atypical amyloidosis can be classified into two groups, class I and class II, according to the presence or absence of heavy amyloid deposits in the spleen and renal glomeruli. However, no significant differences were observed between the amyloid fibrils of class I and class II amyloidosis by electron microscopy and Western blot analysis.Amyloid: the international journal of experimental and clinical investigation: the official journal of the International Society of Amyloidosis 12/2011; 19(1):15-20. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although the experimental transmission of amyloid protein A (AA) amyloidosis with amyloid-enhancing factor has been studied intensively, its pathogenesis remains obscure. We previously found that rabbits affected with 'sore hocks' (SH) uniquely developed AA amyloidosis in response to primary inflammatory stimulation followed by the administration of bovine AA fibrils. However, it is unknown why only the rabbits with preexisting SH developed experimental AA amyloidosis. There may be hidden factors in the SH status that stimulate the mechanism of cross-species transmission of AA amyloidosis. To examine the essential factors in the development of experimental AA amyloidosis in SH-affected rabbits, we studied the etiology of SH in rabbits pathologically and bacteriologically. In addition, we developed artificial SH symptoms in normal rabbits by use of an adjuvant prepared from Staphylococcus aureus (StA) isolated from a spontaneous SH-affected rabbit, and we evaluated the incidence of AA amyloidosis in rabbits with or without experimental SH symptoms. We found that StA administration was extremely efficient at stimulating the induction of experimental AA amyloidosis, and the influence of SH was required. We found that the persistent S. aureus infection in SH facilitates the development of experimental AA amyloidosis in rabbits and that the inflammatory stimulation provided by SH acts as an additional accelerator in experimental AA amyloidosis.Amyloid: the international journal of experimental and clinical investigation: the official journal of the International Society of Amyloidosis 09/2011; 18(3):112-8. · 2.51 Impact Factor