Immunohistochemical distribution of amyloid deposits in 25 cows diagnosed with systemic AA amyloidosis.
ABSTRACT The distribution of amyloid deposits was histopathologically and immunohistochemically examined in 25 cows aged 5 to 10 years that had been diagnosed with systemic AA amyloidosis. This examination revealed that amyloid deposits were also present in the hypophysis, ovary, uterus, mammary gland and skeletal muscle, in addition to the liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, gastrointestinal mucosa, heart, lung and lymph nodes. The examined cows tended to have chronic inflammations, including chronic mastitis (six cases) or chronic pneumonia (four cases), which is thought of as a causative agent of AA amyloidosis. In contrast, five cases did not exhibit any chronic inflammation.
- SourceAvailable from: pnas.org[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The generation of amyloid fibrils from an amyloidogenic polypeptide occurs by a nucleation-dependent process initiated in vitro by seeding the protein solution with preformed fibrils. This phenomenon is evidenced in vivo by the fact that amyloid protein A (AA) amyloidosis in mice is markedly accelerated when the animals are given, in addition to an inflammatory stimulus, an i.v. injection of protein extracted from AA amyloid-laden mouse tissue. Heretofore, the chemical nature of this "amyloid enhancing factor" (AEF) has not been definitively identified. Here we report that the active principle of AEF extracted from the spleen of mice with silver nitrate-induced AA amyloidosis was identified unequivocally as the AA fibril itself. Further, we demonstrated that this material was extremely potent, being active in doses <1 ng, and that it retained its biologic activity over a considerable length of time. Notably, the AEF was also effective when administered orally. Our studies have provided evidence that AA and perhaps other forms of amyloidosis are transmissible diseases, akin to the prion-associated disorders.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2002; 99(10):6979-84. · 9.74 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein that in the blood is bound to high density lipoproteins; SAA is secreted mainly by hepatocytes, and its concentration increases in the blood up to 1000 times during an inflammatory response. At present, its biological function is unclear. Since some forms of secondary amyloidosis are caused by deposition in tissues of peptides derived from the SAA and leukocytes seem to be involved in this process, we investigated the effect of human SAA on human monocytes and polymorphonuclear cells (PMN). When recombinant human SAA (rSAA) was used at concentrations corresponding to those found during the acute phase (> 0.8 microM), it induced directional migration of monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Preincubation of rSAA with high density lipoproteins blocked this chemoattractant activity for both monocytes and PMN. rSAA also regulated the expression of the adhesion proteins CD11b and leukocyte cell adhesion molecule 1 and induced the adhesion of PMN and monocytes to umbilical cord vein endothelial cell monolayers. When subcutaneously injected into mice, rSAA recruited PMN and monocytes at the injection site. On the basis of these data, we suggest that SAA may participate in enhancing the migration of monocytes and PMN to inflamed tissues during an acute phase response.Journal of Experimental Medicine 07/1994; 180(1):203-9. · 13.21 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We herein report that experimental murine amyloid A (AA) deposition is accelerated by oral administration of semipurified amyloid fibrils extracted from different species. Three groups of mice were treated with semipurified murine AA amyloid fibrils, semipurified bovine AA amyloid fibrils or semipurified human light chain-derived (A(lambda)) amyloid fibrils for 10 days. After 3 weeks, each mouse was subjected to inflammatory stimulation by subcutaneous injection with a mixture of complete Freund's adjuvant supplemented with Mycobacterium butyricum. The mice were killed on the third day after the inflammatory stimulation, and the spleen, liver, kidney and gastrointestinal tract were examined for amyloid deposits. Amyloid deposits were detected in 14 out of 15 mice treated with murine AA amyloid fibrils, 12 out of 15 mice treated with bovine AA amyloid fibrils and 11 out of 15 mice treated with human A(lambda) amyloid fibrils. No amyloid deposits were detected in control mice receiving the inflammatory stimulant alone or in amyloid fibril-treated mice without inflammatory stimulation. Our results suggest that AA amyloid deposition is accelerated by oral administration of semipurified amyloid fibrils when there is a concurrent inflammatory stimulation.Pathology International 02/2002; 52(1):40-5. · 1.72 Impact Factor