The Effect of Maternal PTSD Following in Utero Trauma Exposure on Behavior and Temperament in the 9‐Month‐Old Infant

Cornell University, Итак, New York, United States
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.38). 08/2006; 1071(1):454-8. DOI: 10.1196/annals.1364.041
Source: PubMed


In view of evidence of in utero glucocorticoid programming, and our prior observation of lower cortisol levels in 9-month-old infants of mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to mothers without PTSD, we undertook an examination of the effect of in utero maternal stress, as determined by PTSD symptom severity, and maternal cortisol levels on behavioral outcomes in the infant. Methods: Ninety-eight pregnant women directly exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse on 9/11 provided salivary cortisol samples and completed a PTSD symptom questionnaire and a behavior rating scale to measure infant temperament, including distress to limitations, and response to novelty. Results: Mothers who developed PTSD in response to 9/11 had lower morning and evening salivary cortisol levels, compared to mothers who did not develop PTSD. Maternal morning cortisol levels were inversely related to their rating of infant distress and response to novelty (i.e., loud noises, new foods, unfamiliar people). Also, mothers who had PTSD rated their infants as having greater distress to novelty than did mothers without PTSD (t = 2.77, df = 61, P = 0.007). Conclusion: Longitudinal studies are needed to determine how the association between maternal PTSD symptoms and cortisol levels and infant temperament reflect genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms of intergenerational transmission.

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Available from: Sarah Brand, Aug 06, 2014
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    • "refore not be able to detect certain effects due to a lack of statistical power ( see Table 1 ) . Eighteen studies reported as a limitation the use of a convenience sample , but , on the basis of the reports , we concluded that almost all of the studies worked with convenience samples ( except ( Berz et al . , 2008 ; Bosquet Enlow et al . , 2014 ; Brand et al . , 2006 ; Gold et al . , 2007 ; Hairston et al . , 2011 ; Jordan et al . , 1992 ; Lange et al . , 2011 ; Lauterbach et al . , 2007 ; Leen - Feldner et al , 2011 ; Pears & Capaldi , 2001 ; Samper et al . , 2004 ; Rosenheck & Fontana , 1998 ; Yehuda et al . , 2005 ) . In addition , eight stud - ies reported the possibility of a sampling bias . Cl"
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    ABSTRACT: The question as to whether or not children can be affected by the traumatization of their parents has been the topic of a long-standing debate. This article provides a critical review of 72 research studies on traumatized parents with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the parent-child interaction, and the impact on their nonexposed child (0-18 years). The evidence suggests that traumatization can cause parenting limitations, and these limitations can disrupt the development of the young child. From the studies reviewed several patterns emerged: Relational patterns of traumatized parents who are observed to be emotionally less available and who perceive their children more negatively than parents without symptoms of PTSD; relational patterns of children who at a young age are easily deregulated or distressed and at an older age are reported to face more difficulties in their psychosocial development than children of parents without symptoms of PTSD; and relational patterns that show remarkable similarities to relational patterns between depressed or anxious parents and their children. Mechanisms such as mentalization, attachment, physiological factors, and the cycle of abuse offer a valuable perspective to further our understanding of the relational patterns. This article builds on previous work by discussing the emerged patterns between traumatized parents and their nonexposed children from a relational and transactional perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Trauma Violence & Abuse 05/2015; DOI:10.1177/1524838015584355 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    • "Several epidemiological studies reported that 10–15% of mothers suffer from a depressive disorder in the postnatal period (Cox et al., 1993; Andersson et al., 2006). Maternal psychiatric disorders during the postnatal period are also associated with numerous adverse outcomes in the offspring, including impaired neonatal growth and development (Weinberg and Tronick, 1998; Brand et al., 2006) poor cognitive development and behavior during childhood and even adolescence (Weinberg and Tronick, 1998; O'Connor et al., 2002; Brand et al., 2006), as well as negative nutritional and health effects (Rahman et al., 2004; Barr et al., 2006). "
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    Midwifery 08/2014; 30(8). DOI:10.1016/j.midw.2014.02.008 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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