The Effect of Maternal PTSD Following in Utero Trauma Exposure on Behavior and Temperament in the 9‐Month‐Old Infant
Cornell University, Итак, New York, United StatesAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.38). 08/2006; 1071(1):454-8. DOI: 10.1196/annals.1364.041
In view of evidence of in utero glucocorticoid programming, and our prior observation of lower cortisol levels in 9-month-old infants of mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to mothers without PTSD, we undertook an examination of the effect of in utero maternal stress, as determined by PTSD symptom severity, and maternal cortisol levels on behavioral outcomes in the infant. Methods: Ninety-eight pregnant women directly exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse on 9/11 provided salivary cortisol samples and completed a PTSD symptom questionnaire and a behavior rating scale to measure infant temperament, including distress to limitations, and response to novelty. Results: Mothers who developed PTSD in response to 9/11 had lower morning and evening salivary cortisol levels, compared to mothers who did not develop PTSD. Maternal morning cortisol levels were inversely related to their rating of infant distress and response to novelty (i.e., loud noises, new foods, unfamiliar people). Also, mothers who had PTSD rated their infants as having greater distress to novelty than did mothers without PTSD (t = 2.77, df = 61, P = 0.007). Conclusion: Longitudinal studies are needed to determine how the association between maternal PTSD symptoms and cortisol levels and infant temperament reflect genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms of intergenerational transmission.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Sarah Brand, Aug 06, 2014
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- "refore not be able to detect certain effects due to a lack of statistical power ( see Table 1 ) . Eighteen studies reported as a limitation the use of a convenience sample , but , on the basis of the reports , we concluded that almost all of the studies worked with convenience samples ( except ( Berz et al . , 2008 ; Bosquet Enlow et al . , 2014 ; Brand et al . , 2006 ; Gold et al . , 2007 ; Hairston et al . , 2011 ; Jordan et al . , 1992 ; Lange et al . , 2011 ; Lauterbach et al . , 2007 ; Leen - Feldner et al , 2011 ; Pears & Capaldi , 2001 ; Samper et al . , 2004 ; Rosenheck & Fontana , 1998 ; Yehuda et al . , 2005 ) . In addition , eight stud - ies reported the possibility of a sampling bias . Cl"
ABSTRACT: The question as to whether or not children can be affected by the traumatization of their parents has been the topic of a long-standing debate. This article provides a critical review of 72 research studies on traumatized parents with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the parent-child interaction, and the impact on their nonexposed child (0-18 years). The evidence suggests that traumatization can cause parenting limitations, and these limitations can disrupt the development of the young child. From the studies reviewed several patterns emerged: Relational patterns of traumatized parents who are observed to be emotionally less available and who perceive their children more negatively than parents without symptoms of PTSD; relational patterns of children who at a young age are easily deregulated or distressed and at an older age are reported to face more difficulties in their psychosocial development than children of parents without symptoms of PTSD; and relational patterns that show remarkable similarities to relational patterns between depressed or anxious parents and their children. Mechanisms such as mentalization, attachment, physiological factors, and the cycle of abuse offer a valuable perspective to further our understanding of the relational patterns. This article builds on previous work by discussing the emerged patterns between traumatized parents and their nonexposed children from a relational and transactional perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.Trauma Violence & Abuse 05/2015; DOI:10.1177/1524838015584355 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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- "Several epidemiological studies reported that 10–15% of mothers suffer from a depressive disorder in the postnatal period (Cox et al., 1993; Andersson et al., 2006). Maternal psychiatric disorders during the postnatal period are also associated with numerous adverse outcomes in the offspring, including impaired neonatal growth and development (Weinberg and Tronick, 1998; Brand et al., 2006) poor cognitive development and behavior during childhood and even adolescence (Weinberg and Tronick, 1998; O'Connor et al., 2002; Brand et al., 2006), as well as negative nutritional and health effects (Rahman et al., 2004; Barr et al., 2006). "
ABSTRACT: Background The purpose of the study was to assess the validity of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in screening for postnatal depression (PND) in Hungary. Methods Between July 2010 and March 2011, a sample of 266 women attending a routine check-up at 6 weeks post partum completed the newly translated Hungarian version of the EPDS at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Szeged, Hungary and underwent clinical assessments based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV disorders (SCID-I). Results Eight (3.0%) of the mothers were diagnosed with major postnatal depression, and 36 (13.5%) with minor depression on the basis of the SCID. Internal consistency of the Hungarian version of the EPDS was satisfactory (Cronbach alpha coefficients ≥0.727). The best cut-off for major depression was 12/13, with a sensitivity of 100.0%, and a specificity of 97.7%. The area under the ROC curve was found significant for combined (major+minor) depression as well and at a cut-off of 7/8 indicated a sensitivity of 72.7% and a specificity of 86.0%. A factor analysis suggested multidimensionality with two factors (anxiety and depression). Conclusions The EPDS showed good validity in the postnatal period in a clinical sample in Hungary.Midwifery 08/2014; 30(8). DOI:10.1016/j.midw.2014.02.008 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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- "Grant et al. (2009) 4–8 months Anxiety (trait) 21; 26– 34, 35 Temperament (ITQ-revised) Vaughn et al. (1987) 8 months Daily hassles 15–17, 27–28, 37–38 Mental development (BSID-MDI) Huizink et al. (2002) (2003) 9 months 9/11 Not reported Temperament (IBQ) Brand et al. (2006) 9 months 9/11 28–40 "
ABSTRACT: A suboptimal prenatal environment may induce permanent changes in cells, organs and physiology that alter social, emotional and cognitive functioning, and increase the risk of cardiometabolic and mental disorders in subsequent life ("developmental programming"). Although animal studies have provided a wealth of data on programming and its mechanisms, including on the role of stress and its glucocorticoid mediators, empirical evidence of these mechanisms in humans is still scanty. We review the existing human evidence on the effects of prenatal maternal stress, anxiety and depression, glucocorticoids and intake of liquorice (which inhibits the placental barrier to maternal glucocorticoids) on offspring developmental outcomes including, for instance, alterations in psychophysiological and neurocognitive functioning and mental health. This work lays the foundations for biomarker discovery and affords opportunities for prevention and interventions to ameliorate adverse outcomes in humans.Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 08/2011; 14(6):590-603. DOI:10.3109/10253890.2011.602147 · 2.72 Impact Factor